This topic concerns wide aspect of crimes, because definition of terrorism isn’t unanimous concept.
My task was:
• using analysis method formalize the optimal concept of this type of crime,
• participate existing terrorist group and define some of them,
• to separate the main reason for such an action and motivation with or without religious aspect,
• to display what kind of institutions or organizations take care of our security international or transnational aspect.
• Contemplate terrorism future, is it possible that this type of crime may increase or contrariwise,
• To talk about countries with a large terrorism presence,
• Finally, to summarize all this information and to present it.
1. INTERNATIONAL CRIMES
1.1. Danger of international crimes
International crime may refer to:
• Crime against international law. It’s a number of crimes against international law that are created by treaty and convention.
• Crime against humanity. It is an act of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, and is the highest level of criminal offense. Such criminal acts as murder, extermination, torture, rape, political, racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.
• Crime against peace. In international law defines as the act of military invasion as a war crime, specifically referring to starting or waging war against the integrity, independence, or sovereignty of a territory or state, and other military violation of relevant international treaties, agreements or legally binding assurances.
• War crime. It is a punishable offense under international law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. Every violation of the law of war in an inter-state conflict is a war crime, while violations in internal conflicts are typically limited to the local jurisdiction.
• International criminal law. It is an autonomous branch of law which deals with international crimes and the courts and tribunals set up to adjudicate cases in which persons have incurred international criminal responsibility. It represents a significant departure from ‘classical’ international law which was mainly considered law created by states for the benefit of states, but the individual is tended to ignore as a subject of the law. The most important institution is the International Criminal Court and two ad hoc tribunals:
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
Another category of crimes is transnational crimes. “The word “transnational” defines crimes that are not only international, that is, crimes that cross borders between countries, but crimes that by their nature have border crossings as an essential part of the criminal activity.” It also includes crimes that take place abroad. Transnational crimes are:
• Trafficking in human beings. It is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. This sort of crime involves a process of using illicit means such as threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion and etc.
• People smuggling. It means transportation of people across international borders to a non-official entry point of a destination country for a variety of reasons. Mostly, travel without documents or prior approval to enter the destination country. This crime is totally equivalent to slavery.
• Illegal arms trade. It is underground massive global industry and business which manufacturers and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. These arms trade are using for illegal actions considered of massive crimes.
• Sex slavery. It is a special case of unwilling slavery which includes such practices as:
single-owner sexual slavery;
ritual slavery (associated with traditional religious practices);
slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible
1.2. Terrorism definition
There are various descriptions of terrorism. It is defining as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and a holy duty; a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. This type of crime includes an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict. It may be considered as an asymmetric form of conflict which confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost.
Terrorism is increasingly common among those pursuing extreme goals throughout the world, that’s why preemption is so important. Despite all these actions pointed against the terrorism is a nebulous concept, even within fight against this crime we use different definitions. “The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”
There are some key elements that produce terror in its victims:
Finally, we may consider all definitions and make a conclusion that terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. It is violence or other harmful acts committed against civilians for political or other ideological goals.
Also terrorism is sometimes used “when attempting to force political change by convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid future harm or fear of harm, destabilizing an existing government, motivating a disgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopes of disrupting the status quo, expressing a grievance, or drawing attention to a cause.”
There is made global compromise that terrorism must not be accepted under any circumstances. That’s why this solution is reflected in all important conventions.
1.3. The main reason for terror acts
The main reason for terror act is ideological motivation that will influence the objectives of terrorist operations, especially regarding the casualty rate.
Of course there are groups with secular ideologies and non-religious goals. Such terrorist will often attempt highly selective and discriminate acts of violence to achieve a specific political aim. They keep minimum amount of casualties that are necessary to attain the objective.
According to some literature “religiously oriented and millenarian groups typically attempt to inflict as many casualties as possible. Because of the apocalyptic frame of reference they use, loss of life is irrelevant, and more casualties are better. Losses among their co-religionists are of little account, because such casualties will reap the benefits of the afterlife. Likewise, non-believers, whether they are the intended target or collateral damage, deserve death, and killing them may be considered a moral duty.”
Choosing the target often reflect motivations and ideologies.
Terrorist Groups intent is to commit acts of violence to:
• Produce widespread fear
• Obtain worldwide, national, or local recognition for their cause by attracting the attention of the media
• Harass, weaken, or embarrass government security forces so that the government overreacts and appears repressive
• Steal or extort money and equipment, especially weapons and ammunition vital to the operation of their group
• Destroy facilities or disrupt lines of communication in order to create doubt that the government can provide for and protect its citizens
• Discourage foreign investments, tourism, or assistance programs that can affect the target country’s economy and support of the government in power
• Influence government decisions, legislation, or other critical decisions
• Release prisoners
• Satisfy vengeance
1.4. Terrorist groups
Because of mass different categories of terrorism it is used terrorist group definition. Nowadays there exist such terrorist groups as:
• Separatist. They follow the goal of separation from existing entities through independence, political autonomy, or religious freedom or domination. Their ideologies include social justice or equity, anti-imperialism, as well as the resistance to conquest or occupation by a foreign power.
• Ethnocentric. They persuasion see race as the defining characteristic of a society, and therefore a basis of cohesion. Their actions display attitude that a particular group is superior because of their inherent racial characteristics.
• Nationalistic. Their goal is the loyalty and devotion to a nation, and the national consciousness derived from placing one nation’s culture and interests above those of other nations or groups.
• Revolutionary. Dedicated to the overthrow of an established order and replacing it with a new political or social structure.
• Political. Political ideologies are concerned with the structure and organization of the forms of government and communities.
• Religious. This is kind or terrorist group is mostly spread, it takes even a forty-three percent increase of total international terror groups espousing religious motivation. Religiously motivated terrorists see their objectives as holy writ, and therefore infallible and non-negotiable.
• Social. Often particular social policies or issues will be so contentious that they will incite extremist behavior and terrorism. Frequently this group is referred to as “single issue” or “special interest” terrorism. Some issues that have produced terrorist activities in the United States and other countries include animal rights, abortion, ecology/environment, and minority rights.
• Domestic. These terrorists are “home-grown” and operate within and against their home country. They are frequently tied to extreme social or political factions within a particular society, and focus their efforts specifically on their nation’s socio-political arena.
• International or Transnational. International groups typically operate in multiple countries, but retain a geographic focus for their activities.
• Transnational groups operate internationally, but are not tied to a particular country, or even region, for example Al Qaeda is transnational terrorist group.
2. TERROR PREVENTION
2.1. NATO – transatlantic organization
NATO is an Alliance that consists of 26 independent member countries.
• Civilian structure
• Military structure
• Organizations and agencies
NATO and their anti-terror policy engaged in a far-reaching transformation of its forces and capabilities to better deter and defend against terrorism, and this Alliance is working closely with partner countries and organizations to ensure broad cooperation in the fight against terrorism.
This organization is contributing to the fight against terrorism through military operations in Afghanistan, the Balkans and the Mediterranean and by taking steps to protect its populations and territory against terrorist attacks. NATO has taken a number of changes to improve its ability to protect Alliance populations and territories against terrorist attacks and their consequences.
They are also working to improve civil preparedness against, and to manage the consequences of, possible terrorist attacks with chemical, biological and radiological agents.
2.2. EU security policy
After terror attack in USA in 2001, the European Union has been determined to step up the fight against terrorism. This historical event leaded this organization to adopt a Framework Decision urging Member States to align their legislation and setting out minimum rules on terrorist offences. After defining such terrorist offences, the Framework Decision lays down the penalties that Member States must incorporate in their national legislation.
The Framework Decision is applicable to any terrorist offence which is committed or prepared with intent in a Member State or which may seriously damage a country or an international organization.
Terrorist offences must characterize such features as:
• Intimidating people,
• Seriously altering or destroying the political, economic or social structures of a country.
For example: murder, bodily injuries, hostage taking, extortion, fabrication of weapons, committing attacks, threatening to commit any of the above, etc. These offences may be committed by one or more individuals against one or more countries.
Penalties for offenders who did terrorist act, Member States must make provision in their national legislation for:
• effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal penalties;
• mitigating circumstances (collaborating with the police and judicial authorities, finding evidence or identifying the other offenders, etc.).
With a view to improve cooperation in the fight against crime EU made a decision to establish organization Eurojust. This body with legal personality is competent to act in investigations and prosecutions relating to serious crime concerning at least two Member States. Eurojust has a key role to play in the fight against terrorism.
Eurojust’s competence covers transnational crimes and offences for which Europol has competence, (e.g.: terrorism, drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings, counterfeiting and money-laundering, computer crime, fraud and corruption, the laundering of the proceeds of crime, participation in a criminal organization).
3. TERRORISM MENACE
3.1. Terror acts in USA
One of the most terrible terror actions were implemented on 11th September, 2001 in the United States of America. This date is often referred to as 9/11 – emergency call number in US. Terror attacks consisted of a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon USA.
Everything started on that morning nineteen terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. Each team of hijackers included a trained pilot.
The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the World Trade Center in New York City, one plane into each tower. Resulting in the collapse of both buildings soon damaged to nearby buildings.
The third airliner crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington Country, Virginia, near Washington.
Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft attempted to retake control of their plane from the hijackers and that plane crashed into a field near the town of Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania.
After all these events there was no question that there was going to be some sort of retaliation and response from the United States. But now it is though how this sort of revenge would be carried out.
And as a resulting the USA declared war on terror. And this policy of the president of US against terror was supportive by society.
But now this policy is very criticized, because justice cannot exist without respect for human rights.
3.2. Countries with large terrorism presence
There are some counties where appearance of terrorism is quiet bright, and it is called that they are with large terrorism presence. In such counties terrorists have long found refuge in countries and in many cases worked hand in hand with the local governments and the host countries do not try to disassociate themselves from their ties to terrorism and in some cases continue to provide tacit support and use terror to accomplish broader objectives. Some of the countries with significant terrorist operations include:
Terror organizations used Afghanistan as their training and operational base. Al Qaeda was the broad umbrella organization that recruited terrorists from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asia and around the world, training them in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Some of the terrosist groups still operating in the region include Al Qaeda, Al-Jihad, Lashkar-i-Jhangvi, Islamic Group, Armed Islamic Group, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
Iran has long been an active sponsor of Islamic terrorism, including accusations of it supporting subversive activities in Iraq.
3.3. Future of terrorism
Terrorism has demonstrated increasing abilities to adapt to counter-terrorism measures and political failure. Terrorists are developing new capabilities of attack and improving the efficiency of existing methods. Additionally, terrorist groups have shown significant progress in escaping from a subordinate role in nation-state conflicts, and becoming prominent as international influences in their own right. Everytime they are becoming more integrated with other sub-state entities, such as criminal organizations and legitimately chartered corporations, and are gradually assuming a measure of control and identity with national governments.
Terrorist always uses modern technologies or event make a beginning to new ones.
Terrorists are improving their sophistication and abilities in virtually all aspects of their operations and support. The aggressive use of modern technology for information management, communication and intelligence has increased the efficiency of these activities. Weapons technology has become more increasingly available, and the purchasing power of terrorist organizations is on the rise. The ready availability of both technology and trained personnel to operate it for any client with sufficient cash allows the well-funded terrorist to equal or exceed the sophistication of governmental counter-measures.
Likewise, due to the increase in information outlets, and competition with increasing numbers of other messages, terrorism now requires a greatly increased amount of violence or novelty to attract the attention it requires. The tendency of major media to compete for ratings and the subsequent revenue realized from increases in their audience size and share produces pressures on terrorists to increase the impact and violence of their actions to take advantage of this sensationalism.
In conclusion, it is possible to predicate that terrorism as a crime is just one direction of international (or transnational) or national crimes. However this type of crime is describing as a most harmful. Terror actions may course global consequences, f. e. September 11 attack. After this event all the world was shocked and made them to think about operations against the terrorism, to pass statements that could unify States to fight against such action together.
According some literature countries with a large terrorism presence are such as:
Terrorism there is some kind of part of state control. It may influence the religious belief or just a mental disability.
Finally, there is only one unanimous opinion that terrorism must be prevented.
1. Attachment time: 2007-11-03, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11,_2001_attacks
2. Attachment time: 2007-11-05 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transnational_crime
3. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.terrorism-research.com/
4. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.nato.int/structur/home.htm
5. Attachment time: 2007-11-06 http://www.nato.int/issues/capabilities/index.html
6. Attachment time: 2007-11-09 http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/s22011.htm
7. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/WarOnTerror.asp
8. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.terrorism-research.com/state/c