Let‘s protect the Baltic Sea (Anglų įskaita 2010)

Baltic Sea states are still failing to deal with decades of environmental mismanagement in the Baltic Sea, where intense human activity has made it one of the world’s most threatened marine ecosystems, WWF’s Baltic Sea Scorecards report shows.

Home to rich levels of biodiversity and wildlife, the Baltic Sea is a unique marine ecosystem which also sustains the livelihoods and economies of millions of people in the nine coastal countries that call the region ‘home.’

Overfishing, irresponsible shipping, industrial exploitation and pressures from agriculture and forestry continue to negatively impact its sensitive environment. The Baltic Sea today is one of the most threatened marine ecosystems on the planet.

WWF’s 2009 Scorecard examines how Baltic Sea states are planning and managing sea resources and whether they are taking needed steps towards sustainable management.

No country scored the top grade, and only Germany received a B, given its progress in developing maritime spatial plans for its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone moving ahead of the other countries with its plans for the use of its sea waters. Germany is followed by Denmark, Poland, Finland and Sweden which all received a C.

These countries are all in early stages of developing a more integrated approach to sea use management.

‘The report shows that the management varies widely from country to country – and could be described as a bit of a ‘patchwork approach.’ To be able to solve the complex problems of the Baltic Sea the countries and governments must work jointly across sectors and borders,’ said Lasse Gustavsson, CEO of WWF Sweden.

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia all received a grade of D because of a lack of evidence of any real results towards an integrated sea use management.

‘The Baltic Sea is still one of the most threatened seas in the world. Part of the problem facing the Baltic Sea is the ‘free-for-all’ mentality that still governs our use of the sea,’ said Pauli Merriman, Director WWF Baltic Ecoregion Programme. ‘If we are to succeed in saving our common sea for the future, we desperately need to work across countries, sectors and departments to achieve a more integrated sea use management and a holistic perspective.’

‘From an ecosystem perspective, such a relatively small sea like the Baltic cannot be treated as simply a collection of national marine areas. It constitutes, in almost all respects, one single marine ecosystem and should be managed as a whole,’ said Pauli Merriman.

My personal goals/ going to the cinema (anglų kalbėjimo tema) Nr.1

There are different kinds of films. Western, love stories, cartoon, tragedies, horror films, detective stories, feature films, musicals. Your choice depends on your mentality and intellect.
I_m impressed by feature films, especially with distinguished actors or actresses. There are names in the cinema history, which are regarded unique and timeless. Such is Greta Garbo, who herself is the history of the cinema.
Greta Garbo the distinguished film actress , was a unique personality among Hollywood stars , in the 1920-30_s , who never revealed to the world her biography.
All we know about her is that she was born in Stockholm in 1906, was trained in the city school , and at 16 become a pupil of the Royal Dramatic Academy. She never played on the stage.
What did she have that made her a great star? Her work began when she was given a script. She studied it very thoroughly. She studied out every situation, every time detail of it, everything. She memorised all the script which had been translated specially for her into Swedish. She knew exactly what she would do in front of the camera in every episode. She worked at top speed and at full emotion. She never rehearsed. She gave to the camera all she had, leave nothing for extremely difficult to play with Garbo.
She was a miracle. Like every great actor she could throw all of herself into a part, and having done that, she came out of it quite lifeless, her vitality burnt out.
On the set between scenes she would sleep in chair during all the intervals. She was and she looked different from all other stars, she as unrecognisable being tall, boyish, rather badly dressed, with no make up on he face. But the studio bosses often seeing Garbo on the screen for the first time become speechless as they saw a true miracle, a great artist. Cameras were found of shorting her. Garbo on the screen was extremely popular.
Garbo life was never social success. Fame couldn_t give her anything but difficulties. She lived modestly, without fine clothes or jewels, without house or an expensive car.
She worked with many film directors, which liked her, because their pictures with Greta Garbo were a great success. This film about the famous actress and a simple woman, in life, made a deep impression on me and it is still fresh in my memory.

European day of languages (Anglų įskaita 2010)

At the initiative of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, the European Day of Languages is celebrated since 2001 on 26 September.

Throughout Europe, 800 million Europeans represented in the Council of Europe’s 47 member states are encouraged to learn more languages, at any age, in and out of school. Being convinced that linguistic diversity is a tool for achieving greater intercultural understanding and a key element in the rich cultural heritage of our continent, the Council of Europe promotes plurilingualism in the whole of Europe.

On the occasion of the day, a range of events are organised across Europe: activities for and with children, television and radio programmes, language classes and conferences. National authorities and the various partners are given a free hand to organise activities. To coordinate the activities organised at national level, the Council of Europe asks participating countries to nominate “National Relay Persons” for the day.

The general objectives of the European Day of Languages are to:

– alert the public to the importance of language learning and diversify the range of languages learned in order to increase plurilingualism and intercultural understanding;
– promote the rich linguistic and cultural diversity of Europe;
– encourage lifelong language learning in and out of school.
In keeping with these aims, people, young and old, are encouraged to take up a language, or take special pride in their existing language skills. Also, those responsible for providing access to language learning are encouraged to make it easier for people to learn a range of languages, and to support policy initiatives to promote languages. There is also emphasis on learning a language other than English.

On the occasion of the day, a range of events are organised across Europe, including happenings for children, television and radio programmes, language classes and conferences. The events are not organised by the Council of Europe or the European Union nor do they allocate special funding (i.e. apart from their existing language programmes) for the day. Member states and potential partners are given a free hand to organise activities. To coordinate the activities organised at national level, the Council of Europe asks participating countries to nominate “National Relay Persons” for the day. The national relay in the UK is CILT, the National Centre for Languages. CILT’s website provides a whole host of ideas for activities in schools, colleges, workplaces and communities, with many downloadable materials as well as stickers and posters which can be ordered free of charge.

Free time. tv/ my future house (anglų įskaitos tema) Nr.1

Future house now is dedicated to exploring ideas about better living in modernist family homes that are affordable, efficient, healthy, environmentally responsible and available today.
There is a wide range of types of houses all over the world. I would like to have a detached house which would be located in a suburb of a city. It should be somewhere in the woods… This would allow me to create my own space.
Firstly, the exterior of my house would be very modern. My dream house would be surrounded by a high wooden fence. Secondly, the exterior of my house should be surrounded by palm trees, beautiful exotic flowers and a wonderful green lawn. Inside the back yard you’ll see a modern swimming pool and a garden shed. Next to the swimming pool there should be a porch where I could sunbathe or just relaxing after hard work. The second important reason why I want to have the porch is that I could make a barbeque or a small party with friends. Moreover, under my house should be a basement. Inside it you’ll see a cozy sauna. Apart from this, my house would have French windows, huge skylights, a garage attached to the house and other features including a burglar alarm.
When entering the house all you’ll see is antiquarian furniture. The rooms are spacious and bright. In the sitting-room most dominating colours are red and white, because the room is created in oriental style. It would give me warm feelings. There you can see an interesting fireplace and stone pillars. Beautiful pictures are put up on the walls. The dining-room windows look out at the exotic nature. By the way, inside the house you can see a conservatory. Next to it you’ll see a bathroom. Inside the bathroom there is a huge Jacuzzi! The interior of my bathroom is cosy and nice. Furthermore, the space of my house will give you a lot of peaceful feelings, because the house is surrounded by a wonderful environment.
I would like to have a house like this one. I like a peaceful environment and beautiful nature. I think my future children would be very happy to live in this house

Leisure facilities for young people (Anglų įskaita 2010)


What do people like doing during their leisure, what are their hobbies and interests? Now people have much more occupations than earlier. Earlier there was no TV, no radio so people were at home and read books or enjoyed the nature. Some time later the radio and the TV was invented so people spent less and less time for reading books. Now the TV and the radio chains the people and they become coach potatoes. But now all spend their spare time in such a boring way. The people that like to live an active live are much healthier, they aren’t boring; it’s interesting to associate with such people. Its good then people have their hobbies, then they reach some purposes and the life becomes funnier then. My hobby is sporting, because when I have some free time I go in for sports. Then I feel much better, I become more cheerful and livelier. Sometimes I read books, but not often, because I don’t find time for that. If I take a book so I must often read it during a couple days or during a week, because it’s interesting, you want to know what is going to be later and can’t stop reading. But as I have said, I don’t often read books. During my spare time I also like reading newspapers or magazines, because so we people, know what is happening in the world at the moment. When I come home after school, I always listen to the music, it helps me to relax and have arrest after a long day. At weekends I often go to the cinema, it’s better than to sit at home and watch television, because that in the cinema the movies are new and much better and I go to the cinema not alone of course, I go there with my friends and always have a good evening. The theatre, I don’t like going to the theatre because that it isn’t so interesting. Almost all the visitors of the theatre are not younger than 35 or 40 years old. Sometimes I go to the exhibitions, there I know new technologies and it’s interesting. But not often I visit the galleries and the museums, because the museums are already visited and the galleries aren’t my favorite places. Now about the computer. I spend very little time sitting to the computer, because it’s not good for eyes and I don’t have the internet. Sometimes I play some games of course, but not often. I need my computer to write topics too. So, don’t become coach potato and have a good time!

Learning english/ my future job (anglų kalbėjimo tema) Nr.1

There is a time when you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come. It happens differently. Some people start thinking about it very early. They usually choose one profession and try to study as hard as they can in order to get the speciality they’ve chosen. So these are the purposeful people. Other people begin to think about their future profession later, when they finish school. It’s understandable. Leaving school is the beginning of independent life, but isn’t it better to prepare for this life earlier?
A few years ago it was difficult for me to give a definite answer about my future profession. I wanted to be a computer programmer. I was becoming interested in computers every day more and more. I’ve studied informatics for a couple of years, and I was successful. There are a few reasons why being a computer programmer is a really good profession. Firstly, there are fyture prospects for this profession these days, in a modern world of technics. Also, I would earn a lot of money. I was thinking that there is no doubt about my future profession, but I was wrong. My doctor said that computer programming is harmful profession to eyes. He said that if I am going to do it for a long time my vision will get really bad. I couldn’t be a computer programmer so I had to think of another profession.
After a couple of years I became interested in the sea and especially in geography. It was like a new world for me. Since I was a little boy I have dreamed about working on the sea. I was dreaming about that kind of job because my city in Lithuania was a seaport and I enjoyed watching the ships coming and leaving the port. I started to study geography and sciences more in order to become a mate and maybe one day a captain of the ship. I’ve heard that mates earn a reasonable amount. Some of them become very rich. And besides I would like to work on the sea and travel around the world, so I will connect two things: profit and fun.
The profession is chosen. And now I have to study very hard. I’ve chosen not the easiest way, and I know that. But I will do my best. I will study as much as I have to and even more. I hope that I will finish school with high marks, enter university, graduate from it, and then I will have the speciality with which the doors will be open for me everywhere.
Some people can argue that becoming a mate isn’t the best choice. I respect everyone’s opinion. But sooner or later, everyone has to choose his future profession. And may your choice be right!

Theatre day at school (Anglų įskaita 2010)

WORLD THEATRE DAY was created in 1961 by the International Theatre Institute (ITI). World Theatre Day is celebrated annually on the 27th March by ITI Centres and the international theatre community, various national and international theatre events being organized to mark this occasion. One of the most important of these is the circulation of the International Message traditionally written by a theatre personality of world stature at the invitation of the International Theatre Institute.

The term theatre is often applied only to dramatic and musical plays, but it properly includes opera, dance, circus and carnivals, mime, vaudeville, puppet shows, pageants, and other forms—all of which have certain elements in common. They are essentially visual; are experienced directly (although film, videotapes, or recorded sound may be incorporated into a performance); and are governed by sets of rules—such as scripts, scenarios, scores, or choreography—that determine the language and actions of the performers; language, action or atmosphere may be contrived, in order to elicit emotional responses from the audience.

We go to the theatre because we want to see something new, to think, to be touched, to question, to enjoy, to learn, to be shaken up, to be inspired, to touch art. It is very important to celebrate Theatre day at schools, since this tradition would help to keep our nationality, patriotizm and artistity. In my opinion, every day must be Theatre Day!

Relationships/ summer holidays (anglų kalbos kalbėjimo tema)


Everyone likes going on holiday. Every year we make plans for our summer holiday. There are various ways of spending holidays. You can go to the seaside and enjoy swimming in the sea or lying in the sun. You can just travel to new places, meeting people and sightseeing. A lot of people like traveling to different countries. They like climbing the mountain visiting museums and etc.
First of all my holidays are rather passive. On summer holiday I also prefer lying on the beach. I enjoy swimming in the sea and sunbathing. I don’t usually choose an active holiday, such as skiing or mountain climbing, because on holiday I just want to relax and have a rest. But on the other hand I wouldn’t say that I’m not interested in active holiday and it wouldn’t attract me. Actually my ideal holiday is to visit Italy, the most exciting country. This travel is my greatest dream.
Moreover I’d like to sightsee Rome with its ancient history. I’d like to visit Venece as well in my opinion this city is exciting and strong. Obviosly I’d like to climb Italian mountains.
Finally I prefer to spend my holiday near the sea, because traveling in Italy is rather expensive. That is one of the reasons why I’d stay in our country. But as a matter of feat I promised myself when I have a well paid job, I certainly will go on holiday to Italy.

Welcome to our school (Anglų įskaita 2010)

Children begin to go to school when they turn seven. In the first grade, they are starting to create their own personalities. The first steps are growing up there. The most things are not in the education sphere but in the communications with friends other schoolchildren.
school is a part of our environment from the time they are little children until they are almost grown up. We hear very little of what pupils think of school, and what happens to them there.
At school, pupils spend the most important years of their lives. There they take courage and confidence, make friends and learn to understand life. Whatever school’s years will be remain in their hearts forever. Teachers not only give us knowledge of physics, mathematics, history and etc, but they also teach children to love their Motherland, to be honest and hard working. Furthermore, children are taught how to communicate with others, to work in groups. Moreover, at school, pupils discover new feelings. Teachers teach them how to be friendly, kindly, responsible, how to be in comprehension with others, how to help friends, be polite.
school changes the personality of children so that they care about themselves future. As a result, they are not interested in crimes so that we have not so much young criminals.
At school children are spending time jolly, they are always with friends but also they get lots of knowledge. There pupils can get education. Education is the key to the person’s career. It is very important in person’s life. Everybody wants to have a good job, nice car, big house. However, not for all people it is possible. Education is the key for making their lives better and making their dreams come true.
In my opinion, the school is going to be the most important thing that creates a child’s personality and the way of his life.

House technology/ Friendship (anglų įskaitos kalbėjimo tema)

Value that is found in friendships is often the result of a friend demonstrating the following on a consistent basis:

– the tendency to desire what is best for the other;
– sympathy and empathy;
– honesty, perhaps in situations where it may be difficult for others to speak the truth, especially in terms of pointing out the perceived faults of one’s counterpart
mutual understanding;
In a comparison of personal relationships, friendship is considered to be closer than association, although there is a range of degrees of intimacy in both friendships and associations. Friendship and association can be thought of as spanning across the same continuum. The study of friendship is included in sociology, social psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and zoology. Various theories of friendship have been proposed, among which are social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles.

Aristotle on friendship
Friendship… is a kind of virtue, or implies virtue, and it is also most necessary for living. Nobody would choose to live without friends even if he had all the other good things…. There are, however, not a few divergent views about friendship. Some hold that it is a matter of similarity: that our friends are those who are like ourselves… Others take the contrary view….

The role of the internet (Anglų įskaita 2010)

Internet plays very important role in everyones lifes. Why is the Internet important?

1. It is the one medium that is experiencing the most expansion. Over 50 million people have access to the net and it is estimated that over 200 millions will be on the net by the year 2000.

2. Globalization. Your potential market will increase expontantially if your company has a presence on the net. Through e-commerce you are able to do business with companies all over the globe with a minimum of bother.

3. Your presence on the net can provide customers with the essential information they need without having to directly contact your company. Your site can thus be a advertising billboard and information database at the same time.

4. It has come to be almost essential for companies to have a site on the net. A good site will embed trust in your future customers. On the other hand, a badly designed site can be detrimental to your image. Your site is available to you customers 24 hours a day, every day of the year and through your site they will be able to perform their necessary actions (e.g. place orders, track their orders, send messages).

5. A more inexpensive way of presenting your company to the public than most other forms of advertising. Your site will always be up-to-date with the newest information, something that other mediums can not match.

6. Gain an advantage over your competition in this rapidly expanding market by having a professional well managed site. Beware that it may be better to have no homesite rather than to have an inferior one.

Saving energy and water/ studying environment (anglų kalbos įskaitos tema) Nr.1

Many people believe that the way we live our lives today is having an extremely bad effect on the environment. Here are some examples of environmental problems and solutions.
Pollution – is damage to the air, sea, rivers, or land caused by chemicals, waste and harmful gases. Pollutants include toxic waste, pesticides, and fertilizers.
environmental problems:
Cars – the biggest polluter today is the car. Exhaust fumes are the main cause of bad air quality, which can make people feel ill and have difficulty breathing. This problem is especially bad in some cities where, on days when there is not much wind, a brown layer of smog hangs in the air. The number of cars is increasing every year, and this causes serious congestion. Governments then build new roads to try to improve the situation, but this means that they cut down trees and destroy more of the countryside.
The GreenHouse Effect is caused by harmful gases known as greenhouse gases. These gases are produced when we burn fuels, especially coal burned in power station to make electricity. The gases go up into the Earth’s atmosphere and stop heat from leaving the Earth.
Because the heat cannot escape, the Earth is getting warmer. This is known as global warming. Global warming may cause the ice at the North Pole and South Pole to melt and sea levels to rise, leading to serious flooding in many parts of the world. In other places, temperatures will ride and there will be less rain, turning more of the land into desert.
Hole In The Ozone Layer. The ozone layer is a layer of gases that protects us from ultraviolet light from the sun, which can have a harmful effect on animals, and causes skin cancer in humans. The ozone layer is being damaged by chemicals, especially chloroflourocarbons, and when holes appear in the ozone layer, harmful light from the sun reaches the Earth.
Acid Rain is that rain that is harmful to the environment because it contains acid from factory smoke. Acid rain causes damage to trees, rivers, and buildings.
The Destruction of Habitats. All over the world, wildlife is being threatened because habitats and woodlands are being destroyed. Rainforests are being cut down so that people can use the land to grow crops. Many species of animals have become extinct, and many more are endangered.
some solutions:
Alternative forms of transport. One of the main problems with cars is that they cause a lot of pollution and often carry only one person. Public transport is more environmentally friendly because buses can carry large numbers of people at the same time. Car pools are another way of reducing of cars on the roads. Even cleaner solutions are electric cars, and bicycles.
Renewable energy sources such as wind power, wave power, and solar power do not pollute the environment. They are much cleaner that oil and coal.
Green Products. We can help the environment by choosing to buy green products. Examples of green products are recycled paper, wood from sustainable sources, and organic fruit and vegetables.
Recycling is when you use something again instead of throwing it away. Glass, cans, paper, and plastic can all be recycled.
Protesting. Many people try to protect the environment by joining environmental groups that inform people about green issues, and try to persuade governments to take more care of the environment, especially by organizing protests.

Looking for a summer job (Anglų įskaita 2010)

Summer is perfect time of looking for a temporary job. In my point of view, pupils should not get down to every job which is offered. First of all every of us have make a list of interests and strengths, as well as dislikes and the things you need some improvement in, and keep them in mind as you look for a job. For example, if you love books or writing, a job in a bookstore or library might be perfect for you. So every of us has to think about future dreem job and to move under this direction. I think, that every job, even temporary summer job, has to be valuable, beneficial and giving basics for our dreem job. That’s why we can not waste time to casual and useless jobs. On the other hand, it is not easy to find desirable job nowadays, when labour marker is in deep crisis and unemployment rate is more than 10%. However, clever, wily, responsible and intellectual applicants still can find good jod, even labour market is quite comlicated today.

Healthy food/ free time activities (anglų kalbos įskaita)


Eating habits are often formed in childhood and affect the child`s health throughout their life. One of the big problems that we have with getting kids to make good FOOD choices is that we ourselves often eat unhealthy FOOD.
In my opinion, if a child sees you eating healthy items- vegetables, fruits, whole grains, the child will be more inclined to see those items as the normal foods that are consumed. These items should be staple items, not something to go along with an unhealthy diet.
Try to make the FOOD fun. Tell and show your child that some vegetables, which you are using for the meal is just for colouring and for making the FOOD more fun. Baking mixes can have wonderful results with FOOD colouring stirred gently into the mix. A few drops of different colours can make your FOOD colourful so that children love to eat it.
Even if your child doesn`t love to eat healthy FOOD, just keep trying. It may take more time, but eventually the FOOD will be familiar to the child and he will not be so afraid to try it.
Offer your child choices. Kids love the opportunity to make decisions for them selves. If you offer several different healthy foods, children will eat what they choose.
Have standard meal times. If the meal times are the same each day, the appetite will be ready for them. Do not give to many snacks between meals. They should be hungry and should wait for meal times and would eat what are you offering.
At the end I would like to say don`t forget to educate your child about which FOOD is good for them. That eating healthy FOOD is extremely important for growing.

Free time activities. Music / shopping (anglų įskaitos tema)

Every person is interested in his or her hobby from childhood. Same young people are keen on doing crossword puzzles because many magazines and papers are full of them but this hobby needs much knowledge in ever sphere of life. The boys usually like watching TV, fishing and especially now playing computer games. On weekends the young people go on discos. Some boys and girls go in sports. They attend various sports – basketball, football, handball athletics and so on. There are very few young people especially schoolchildren who like reading books. Many pupils after lessons go to music school art where they learn to play some instruments.
TV radio newspapers or magazines are very popular in Lithuania, There are a lot of TV channels so the young people mostly like LNK TV3 TV4 and MTV channels because there are more interesting films more music. Radio is also very popular among young people. They like listening music. Every teenager has a favourite pop group or singer.
The most popular newspaper in Lithuania is “LIETUVOS RYTAS”. It is popular not only among young at all. Older people find there what is happening in Lithuania and in the world. They find articles on political events, sports, life of interesting people and so on. There are also many other newspaper and magazines. Young people like reading magazines I think it is good because they don’t like read a books.

Why, and with what implications, have sociologists tended to overlook ‘play’ as a fundamental category in Social life?


‘Real civilization cannot exist in the absence of a certain play-element, for civilization presupposes limitation and mastery of the self, the ability not to confuse its own tendencies with the ultimate and highest goal’.[J. Huizinga, Play and Civilization, p. 687]. However play, as a category of Social life, does not seem to be so fundamental to classical thinkers like Marx. ‘It is in the working over of the objective world that a man firstly really affirms himself as a species-being. This production is his active species-life. Through it nature appears as his work and his reality.’ [Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, McLellan, p.80]. For Marx the most fundamental category of Social life is labour. This is where clear contrast between classical and contemporary sociologists can be seen. Looking at works of classical sociologists E. Durkheim, K. Marx, E. Durkheim and contemporary sociologists J. Huizinga and C. Geertz this essay will compare and contrast different approaches to this issue in order to establish how significant is the analysis of play (if at all) and what it tells us about various aspects of Social life.


The starting point will be the Oxford Dictionary of English, which has quite a few meanings of the word ‘play’. The main definition is ‘exercise or action for amusement or diversion; and derived uses. Exercise or action by way of recreation; amusement, diversion, sport, frolic.’ From this definition we can deduce that play is something that stands in opposition to work, something that makes individuals escape all the troubles of work and something that we all do, independent of our age, sex, race etc. Play does in fact allow us to escape the iron cage, in which according to M. Weber, when he spoke about rationalization and bureaucratisation, mankind is imprisoning itself. Furthermore, according to Jim Ottaway, a PhD student at the LSE, ‘play fills the gaps when we have no work to do, when we have too much energy to be absorbed by work, when we need something else to think about than harsh Political realities, and so on’. But how can play reveal us crucial aspects of Social life?

In order to find out about the importance of play in sociological perspective, the essay will look at the work of a contemporary sociologist’s, J. Huizinga’s work – ‘Play and Civilization’. Huizinga looks at various forms of play: childhood games, contests and races, performances and exhibitions, dance and music etc. Games involve absolutely every member of the society, which means we can look at a fair ‘sample’, unlike, in Marx’s case – just the working class. Huizinga defines play as ‘a primary category in life…it cannot have its foundations in any rational nexus…play is a thing on its own. Play cannot be denied. You can deny, if you like, nearly all abstractions: justice, beauty, truth, goodness, mind, God. You can deny seriousness, but not play.’ [p. 21].

Huizinga stresses the aspect of freedom in play, which is also a part of the definition of play in the Oxford English Dictionary. ‘All play is a voluntary activity. Play to order is no longer play. <…> Play can be deferred or suspended at any time. It is never imposed by physical necessity or moral duty. It is never a task. It is done at leisure, during “free time”. Only when play is a recognized function – a rite, a ceremony – is it bound up with notions of obligations and duty’. [p. 675]. This point contrasts with what the French sociologist Emile Durkheim stated in his work – ‘when a rite serves as entertainment, it is no longer a rite. <…> A rite is something other than a game; it belongs to the serious side of life’. [E. Durkheim, Elementary Forms of Religious Life, p. 386]. Nevertheless, I failed to find an implicit definition of play in any of the classical texts.

Huizinga lays out the main characteristics of play: that it is free, it has disinterestedness in a way that it stands outside the immediate satisfaction of wants and also that play is secluded, limited – it has certain limits of time and space. Play is also unproductive, which contrasts with Marx, who thought that only productive aspects of Social life are significant. Furthermore, Huizinga states that play creates a feeling of togetherness – all the games have goals and in order to achieve them very often players have to team up. Furthermore, play has rules – ‘The rules of a game are absolutely binding and allow no doubt’. [p.678]. In this sense Huizinga shows the relationship of play to ritual. Huizinga argues that trough culture, play is linked to rituals and the idea of sacredness and that play is bound to the development of ‘civilisation’. This is a functionalist argument – it explains a phenomenon on the basis of the purpose that it serves. However, Anthony Giddens, the Director of LSE, criticizes that all functionalist explanations can be rewritten as historical accounts of human action and its consequences; that is, human individuals and their actions are the only reality, and we cannot regard societies or systems as having an existence over and above individuals.

Against the objection that ritual is serious and play not, Huizinga suggests that play has its own seriousness, and that ritual is in fact a sub-category of play – ritual is a kind of play. In fact if we look closer at play and rituals, we could deduce a lot of similarities. First of all play is surrounded with an air of secrecy – even in early childhood the charm of play is enhanced by making a ‘secret’ out of it. Inside the circle of a game the laws and customs of ordinary life no longer count. According to Huizinga, ‘This temporary abolition of the ordinary world is fully acknowledged in child-life, but it is no less evident in the great ceremonial games of savage societies.’ [p. 679]. However, can we establish a developmental link and ascend from the lower rites and religions to the higher? In this situation E. Durkheim’s work in ‘The Elementary Forms of Religious Life’ could give us a hint. According to Durkheim, ‘all the essential elements of religious thought and life ought to be found, at least in germ, in the most primitive religions’. In his analysis Durkheim applies the principles of Cartesian logic and states that the first links of the developmental chain, in this case primitive rites, are the most important. By looking at primitive forms of play, namely at a study by C. Geertz and using the same logic we will also try to find out later in the essay, about the most essential and important elements of this phenomenon and its implications to Social life.

Durkheim’s also argues that ‘men owe it to religion not only the content of their knowledge, in significant part, but also the form in which the knowledge elaborated’. If we assumed that play and religion in its primitive form have a big impact on the development of society, we could also state that play is a fundamental category of Social life.

Let us now look at another contemporary sociologist’s, C.Geertz’s work. ‘Deep Play: a Description of the Balinese Cockfight’ is a description of the sport of cock-fighting in Bali and the gambling activities that surround it. The central point of the text is sociological: to find connections between the cultural activity and the society in which it takes place. The key point in order to understand the link between the cock fight and the Balinese society is to understand the structure of betting. Geertz provides a ‘thick’ explanation of how the ‘cock-fighting’ is organised. First of all he explains the meaning of word cock – in Balinese it metaphorically means ‘hero’, ‘warrior’, ‘champion’, which suggests that there is some aspect of status in the meaning. He then goes onto explaining how devoted Balinese men are, when preparing their fight cocks for the fight.
‘Balinese men spend an enormous amount of time with their favourites [fight cocks], grooming them, feeding them, discussing them, trying them out against one another, or just gazing at them with a mixture of rapt admiration and dreamy self-absorption’.[p.657]. It might not be apparent, but such behaviour could be explained by the fact that fight cocks are symbolic expressions or magnifications of their owner’s self and of human status. However, apart from cocks and few domestic animals, Balinese are aversive to animals as they are seen as daemons or Powers of Darkness. A cockfight is some sort of a sacrifice to the demons in order to pacify their hunger. A cock fight is in a sense a ritual, similar to the ones described previously in the essay.

Geertz explains that there are two types of betting – ‘deep’ and ‘shallow’. The play in the centre has a tendency to be balanced and even-money, and this means that the side-betting is drawn to shorter odds. In Geertz’s words: “The centre bet ‘makes the game’, or perhaps better, defines it, and signals its depth”. It is the “solid citizenry around whom Social life revolves” [p.688] who are involved in the big matches and the deep bets; those who dominate their society also dominate and define the play in the cockfight. Geertz also explains that actually ‘players’ not only bet their money, but also bet their Social status metaphorically:
‘What makes the cock fighter deep is not the money itself, but what the money causes to happen: the migration of the Balinese status hierarchy into the body of the cockfight.’ [p. 669].
The rules of a cock fight are written down in a palm leaf manuscripts passed on from generation to generation as part of the general legal and cultural tradition of the villages. At a fight, an umpire ensures that these rules are followed and his authority is absolute – he has the highest authority in the cock-fight. Only exceptionally well-trusted, solid, and knowledgeable citizens perform this job. The function of an umpire could be compared to the function of kings, judges, priests in the Western World – all these positions express a respected Social status of an individual.
Central bets in the cock fight are usually high, the peripheral bets, performed by members of the audience, are a lot smaller. Geertz explains how the structure of the fight might gives us an idea about the Social organisation of the Balinese society:

‘Bettors themselves form a socio-moral hierarchy. At most cockfights there are, around the very edges of the cock fight area, a large number of mindless, sheer-chance type gambling games. Only women, children, adolescents and various other sorts of people who do not fight cocks – the extremely poor, the socially despised, the personally idiosyncratic – play at these games. Cockfighting men would be ashamed to go anywhere near them. and finally, there are those, the really substantial members of the community, the solid citizenry around whom local life revolves, who fight in the larger fights and bet on them around the side. <…> These men generally dominate and define the sport as they dominate and define the society’. [p.668-9].

However, to think of the cockfight in terms of the Social hierarchies it reproduces would be wrong.
‘The cock fight makes nothing happen. Men go on allegorically humiliating one another <…> but no one’s status really changes. You cannot ascend the status ladder by winning cockfights. However, cockfights catch up various themes – death, masculinity, rage, pride, loss – and, ordering them into and encompassing structure, allows us to see their essential nature. ‘A cockfight is a means of expression; its function is neither to assuage Social passions nor to heighten them, but to display them’.[p.671]. ‘The slaughter in the cock ring is not a depiction of how things literally are among men, but, what is almost worse, of how, from a particular angle, the imaginatively are.’ [p.673].


Looking at the way the essay question was formed, we could say that it implies that sociologists do tend to look at play as a fundamental category of Social life. However, this is not always true, for example with Marx and other classical sociologists. It would probably be a good idea to insert the word ‘contemporary’ to make it more clear.

Nevertheless, having analysed the texts of Huizinga and Geertz it is possible to look at play in a totally different and maybe even more interesting perspective. Analysing play does fill in the gaps which were left out by classical sociologists. This essay would not agree with Huizinga that looking at play is fundamental when trying to understand Social life. However, ‘sociology of play’ reveals a lot of useful aspects, which, combined with classical approaches, could render a richer and more elaborate view of Social life.

A final and very interesting note on the possibilities of understanding that play provides us with, comes from an article ‘Sublime Play’ by Scott Drake, an Architecture student at the University of Australia. He argues that architecture is a form of play, which ‘must be frivolous, to allow to player to engage unselfconsciously with the medium at hand. This requires a suspension of the seriousness or architecture, its significance as a shared and enduring form of Social expression. <…> To lose oneself to the play of architecture enables the player [architect] to forgo subjectively and to come closer to shared forms of meaning. This is what makes play truly sublime’[p.5]. It is a very interesting point – play might not be the fundamental category of Social life, however, because during the act of play we release our senses, it might reveal some useful information about the impact of society on us. However, this is probably questioned in psychology, rather than sociology.

‘Play seems to capture something that we all do, and which is not adequately realised from the perspective of work, or of the work that play might do’. [p.8, Jim Ottaway, 2003]


Marx, K. (1844) ‘Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts’, McLellan

Geertz, C. (1972/1976) ‘Deep Play: a Description of the Balinese Cockfight’ in Bruner, J.S./ Jolly, A./ Sylva, K. (eds.) Play – Its Role in Development and Evolution.
pp. 656-674.

Huizinga, J. (1949/1970) ‘Play and Contest as Civilizing Functions’ in Bruner, J.S./ Jolly, A./ Sylva, K. (eds.) Play – Its Role in Development and Evolution.
pp. 675 – 687.

Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Online, 2nd Edition, 1989

Drake, S., (2003) ‘Sublime Play’, University of South Australia

Ottaway, J., (2003) Lecture handout in Principles of Sociology, London School of Economics

Marshall, G., (1994) Dictionary of Sociology, Oxford University Press (1998).

Mass Media


Mass Media is an important part of our life. People from different walks of life have become nowadays listeners, readers, viewers. Reading newspapers and magazines, watching TV, listening to the news on the radio is our main means of getting information in all its variety. Newspapers with their enormous circulation report different kinds of news. They carry articles which cover the latest international and national events. There are special newspapers which gave a full coverage of commercial, financial and publish affairs. There are newspapers and magazines for young people. They give a wide coverage of news, events and reports on education, sports, cultural life, entertainment and fashion. Radio broadcasts are valued mainly for their music news. TV is the most popular kind of Mass Media now. Viewers are fond of watching different kinds of shows, films, sports, plays and games, educational and cultural programmes. Although there are many interesting and exciting TV shows, but some of them encourages indecency, foul language, drug and alcohol abuse.
There are a wide variety of opinions how television affects young people. It is believed that violent behaviour in later life could be linked to teenage viewing habits. US researchers say that adolescents who watch more than one hour of television a day are more likely to become violent adults. Effects of Media may be particularly sensitive in early adolescence, because it is a time for the development of socials skills and personalities. Other researchers claim that television can’t be a reason for a violent behaviour. The behaviour also depends on living conditions, relationship with family members and other factors.
With reference to all theses facts, we could give a question: “Might television be brainwashing today’s youth?”. Youth are becoming the offspring of the television. Usually they turn into reality whatever they see on TV. Kids like to become the people they see on television. So, we could say that television is brainwashing today’s youth into little soldiers preparing for war. Many children are paying a lot of attention to different kinds of TV programmes and they don’t do this at school. After the invention of television, the problem had become inevitable. Spending numerous hours in front of this “boob tube”, children are not being able to express their feelings. When people watch TV they stick to it and don’t see anything around them. On one hand television gives us a lot of information, but on the other hand it might be called as the “brainwasher of today’s youth”.
Talking about Mass Media, we should discuss on the hole the effects of Mass Media on society. The Media virus of the 21st century will influence your opinions, it will eventually begin to tell you what clothes to wear, how to style your hair, how you should look, who you should like and etc. Mass Media has the overwhelming impact on our lives. Press, television, radio prescribes us how to live. The birth of the newspapers industry brought a new concept of social awareness down to the average working-class family. Technological advances and decreasing paper prices not only helped the newspaper industry flourish, but appear other forms of print such as books and magazines. Unfortunately, it was a bitter when the “necessary evil” of television was introduced to the whole world. It was succeeded in turning many families into a bunch of overweight couch potatoes. The introduction of the Internet completely revolutionized the ways in which we do business. These days you can get practically anything off the Internet. However, Mass Media plays a big role in our life and affects us more than we think.
In the end, I could say that TV, radio, press reflect the present day life. Every year the influence of Mass Media is becoming greater and greater. The amount we spend immersing in Mass Media is not only going to shape who we are as persons, but it will eventually sever our connection to the real world.

Lithuania from the year 1009


The Baltic tribes established themselves on what is presently known as Lithuanian territory during the 7th-2nd centuries BC. Many centuries passed, however, before the name of lithuania appeared in records for the first time, in AD 1009, in the Annals of Quedlinburg. During the period 1236-63, Duke Mindaugas (Mindowe) united the Lithuanian ethnic lands and established the state of lithuania, which was able to offer resistance against the eastward expansion of the Teutonic Knights. In 1253, Mindaugas embraced Christianity for political reasons, and accepted the crown from the Pope of Rome. Thus, he became the first and only king in Lithuanian history.Grand Duke Gediminas (Gedimin), who ruled the country from 1316 to 1341, started the long-term expansion of lithuania into the lands of the eastern Slavs. He founded the modern capital city of Vilnius and started the Gediminaiciai dynasty, whose representatives became members of many European monarchies.A Gediminaitis, Jogaila (Jagiello), in becoming the King of Poland in 1386, started the 400-year common history of lithuania and Poland, which was marked by several agreements and unions. As a result of this union, Christianity finally came to lithuania.Grand Duke Vytautas (Witold), who ruled from 1392 to 1430, brought the greatest military and political prosperity to the country. During his reign, the push eastward by the German Order was broken. In 1410 Vytautas, along with his cousin Jogaila Jagiello, won the Battle of Grьnwald (Tannenberg), against the might of the Order. He also annexed many Belorussian, Russian and Ukrainian territories to lithuania and extended the state border all the way to the shores of the Black Sea.Internal discord began to weaken the state during the 16th century. More resilient ties with Poland became unavoidable, and in 1569, lithuania signed the Union of Lublin with Poland, further strengthening ties between the two nations. The agreement created a Commonwealth Republic of two nations, which shared one king (also holding the title of Grand Duke of lithuania) and a joint legislature, the Seimas. Nevertheless, lithuania’s state sovereignty was preserved: the treasury, the currency, the laws and the army remained independent. Regrettably, in historical sources, this impressive Republic is most frequently alluded to by the single name of Poland. The institution of an elected king in this Republic was the first in Europe. In 1573 Henry Valois of Bourbon became the first such king.A cultural leap forward occurred in the 16th century, resulting from the supremacy of self rule by the boyars, land reform, consolidation of cities and the arrival on the scene of an enlightened society. During that century, in 1529, 1566 and 1588, three Statutes of lithuania were written. These are documents of an unsual legal nature, containing elements of state law. (The last Statute still applied within the territory of the former Grand Duchy of lithuania as late as the 19th century, long after the disappearance of the state from the political map.)From 1654 to 1667, lithuania became enmeshed in wars with Russia, whose might had been increasing. A misfortune occurred in 1655, as for the first time in history Vilnius was occupied by a foreign army, that of the Russian Czar. While searching for a solution to extricate itself from a difficult international situation and disagreements with Poland, lithuania formed an agreement with Sweden, the short-lived Treaty of Kedainiai, also in 1655. In spite of this, the state continued to diminish in strength.During the second half of the 18th century, the Grand Duchy of lithuania lost nearly all its sovereign rights. Following its successful wars with Sweden, Russia, together with Austria and Prussia engaged in the partition of the Republic of lithuania-Poland, in three instances, in 1772, 1793 and 1795. Following the third partition, the major part of the former Grand Duchy of lithuania was handed over to Russia. The name of lithuania had di A greater blow was dealt in the 19th century, though the beginning was deceptively calm. In 1803, the university was accorded the name of Imperial University and Vilnius itself continued to preserve the marks of its past majesty: it was the third largest city (after Moscow and St Petersburg) in the Russian Empire. However, a change of direction was imminent: it came in 1812, with Napoleon’s campaign against Russia. The French were enthusiastically received in lithuania as liberators, and were supported and even honoured in high social circles. The hasty withdrawal of the French which soon followed, was the prelude to disaster. Following Napoleon’s campaign, Czar Nicholas I initiated a new policy: the authorities of the occupation began to russify the country with increased speed, and to transform it into a provincial hinterland. Along with the Poles, the Lithuanians revolted against the occupiers on two occasions, in 1831 and 1863, but the revolts brought painful defeats. The consequences were sad indeed: Vilnius University and other institutions of higher education were closed, the influence of the Catholic Church was curbed, all Catholic monasteries were closed and the Russian Orthodox Religion was declared the state religion. Lithuanians were not permitted to purchase land, erect crosses and new churches. The centuries-old ties between lithuania and Central and Western Europe were torn up by the roots. The first deportations of Lithuanian boyars and peasants to the depths of Siberia were begun.From 1864, the Lithuanian language itself and its Latin alphabet were banned and the so-called graZdanka, Lithuanian with the Russian alphabet, was introduced. The cultural life of the country went into a state of paralysis.lithuania began to recover only towards the end of the 19th century, the period known as the “spring of nations.” A struggle for national culture and reinstitution of writing spread over the greater part of the country. A unique movement, the “book-bearers” (knygnesiai) came about through self-education and a concern for survival. Lithuanian books in the Latin alphabet were printed in lithuania Minor, Prussia, under German jurisdiction, and illegally transported across the border into lithuania Major. The book-bearer movement fostered “home-school” movement and the emergence of self-taught teachers. In the course of several decades, the degree of literacy and national awareness was greatly increased throughout the entire country. In 1883, Dr. Jonas Basanavicius organised the publication of the first Lithuanian periodical, Ausra (“The Dawn”), which was also disseminated illegally. The authority of educated people grew rapidly. An increasing number of students who had graduated from universities in Russia, Poland or the West, joined the national rebirth movement.In 1904, Lithuanian representatives managed to win by legal means the lifting of the ban on Lithuanian publications and educational institutions.At the start of the 20th century, the national movement became so strong that in 1905 the Grand Assembly of Vilnius (Didysis Vilniaus Seimas), which had formulated the demands of lithuania’s autonomy, was able to assemble. Lithuanian representatives were also elected to the newly-formed Russian Parliament, the Duma, where they defended their rights with ever-increasing boldness.At the start of World War I, lithuania was soon occupied by Germany. With the end of the war in sight, Lithuanian representatives from all parts of the country, seizing a favourable political moment, assembled in Vilnius in September 1917, and held a conference. The elected 20-member Council of lithuania proclaimed the restitution of the independent state of lithuania on the 16th of February, 1918, even though the German Army and authorities were still in control of the entire country.sappeared from the political map of Europe for 123 years. On the 23rd of March, 1918, the German Kaiser announced his recognition of the independence of lithuania. However, until Germany capitulated in November that same year, lithuania’s international status remained undefined. On the 12th of December, 1918, Sweden was the first state to accord lithuania de facto recognition. Russia and the major countries of the world recognised lithuania’s independence during 1920-22. lithuania was admitted to the League of Nations in 1921. The wars of defence of independence against the Bolsheviks, Poles and the remnants of the German and the Czarist armies continued until 1923. In the course of these wars, lithuania lost its capital, Vilnius, which was occupied by Poland in 1920. Kaunas became the provisional capital and continued in that capacity for 20 years. Those years were not only a difficult time, but a period of hope as well. The Seimas, which had implemented the greatest reforms, functioned during 1920-22: it introduced the national currency (litas), passed laws that were favourable to the national economy and financial system, and organised radical land reform. The lands of the major estates were reduced somewhat and peasant farms began to recover. The country prospered rapidly along with the rest of Europe. In 1923, lithuania recovered its historic Baltic seaport, Klaipeda, thus gaining a gateway to the world. However, the first eight years of independence failed to consolidate the democratic system of administration by the Seimas and the division of government. In December 1926 the army leadership, Nationalist Party and Christian Democratic staged a revolt, resulting in a loss of democracy. Government by the Seimas and its elected president was replaced by unlimited presidential rule. The political dictatorship of the Nationalist Party and the authoritarian rule of President Antanas Smetona lasted until the end of independent statehood. The threads of independence had already begun to break by March 1939, when fascist Germany annexed Klaipeda and the surrounding region. The twenty-two years of inter-war Lithuanian independence constitute the first golden age in Lithuanian culture. During that period, national life regained the characteristics of national civilisation. The state of lithuania and Lithuanian culture broke through into the international arena and took part in major international events, the most impressive among them being the International Exposition in Paris in 1937. In addition to achievements in art and science, basketball has provided some cause for national pride: in 1937 and 1939, the Lithuanian Men’s Team became the European Champions. In 1933, Stasys Darius and Steponas Girenas achieved world fame by setting out on a direct flight from New York to Kaunas. They perished in East Prussia, near the Lithuanian border.
World War II

As a result of World War II, lithuania suffered immense deprivations, with gigantic losses and damage. The nation found itself on the brink of physical annihilation. On 23rd August, 1939, just prior to its attack upon Poland, Germany signed a secret agreement with the Soviet Union, on the division of the spheres of influence, the document known as the secret Hitler-Stalin Pact (Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact). Initially, lithuania was relegated to the German sphere of influence; however, on lithuania’s refusal to attack Poland as a German ally, it was transferred to the Soviet sphere of influence, in a second secret pact signed in Moscow on the 27th of September that same year. On the 10th of October 1939, Vilnius was returned to lithuania and Soviet military bases were established within the country. On the 15th of June 1940 (the day when the German Wehrmacht entered Paris), the Soviet Union occupied lithuania. Soon afterwards, Latvia and Estonia were also occupied. On the 14th of June 1941, the Soviets carried out the first mass deportation of the Lithuanian people to Russia and Siberia, with approximately 35,000 deported within several days. On 22nd June 1941, Germany attacked the Soviet Union and several days later, the Wehrmacht occupied the whole of lithuania. Until the Germans had fully consolidated their position, Lithuanian politicians and representatives of the intelligentsia organised an independent government for the country. However, the new occupation force’s administration did not allow the existence of a Lithuanian government. A massive destruction of the Jews was launched, claiming 200,000 lives. Thousands were taken to Germany. In the summer of 1944, the Red Army crossed the Lithuanian border once again, and occupied Vilnius, occupying Klaipeda in January 1945. Once again, the entire country fell under Soviet power. In accordance with the Yalta and Potsdam Agreements between the Soviet Union, the United States of America and Great Britain, lithuania began to be treated as a part of the Soviet Union. Thousands of Lithuanians, who had fought as soldiers of the armies of the anti-Hitlerite coalition, could not return to a free homeland.
Decades of Soviet occupation

Prior to the return of the Soviets, tens of thousands of Lithuanian citizens fled to the West, including a very large segment of the intelligentsia, university lecturers and professors, writers and artists, business people and well-to-do farmers. It appeared as if the country were losing its best people. Upon their return, the Soviets undertook even stricter repressive measures than those before the war. In the course of 10 years, approximately 130,000 of the population were deported to Siberia and other distant areas of the Soviet Union: the majority of them perished due to the unbearable transport and living conditions. A partisan war ensued, lasting 9 years and claiming tens of thousands of lives. It has been calculated that lithuania lost approximately 30% of its population during the period 1940-53. As early as the first post-war years, a mass immigration of Russians and other Soviet nationalities was begun, bringing unavoidable sovietisation and russification of public life. Once again, as in the 19th century, the Lithuanian language faced the danger of extinction. The Soviet decades brought about a basic change within the country’s economy and infrastructure: land was nationalised and turned over to the collective farms, rural life was threatened and a new movement of the population towards the cities, with unrestrained industrialisation of the country, ensued. All this took place without reference to lithuania’s internal needs and opportunities. The country’s economy was developed solely through the methods of the occupying regime. Construction was implemented of giant complexes manufacturing fuel-injecting equipment, machine tools, chemicals, oil, mineral fertilisers and processing metal, none of which reflected lithuania’s needs. This entire infrastructure functioned on the basis of imported raw materials and energy resources. It employed tens of thousands of workers who immigrated into lithuania. During the 1980’s, one of the largest nuclear power stations in Europe was constructed near Ignalina in northeastern lithuania.
In the spring of 1985, perestroika, initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev, began in the Soviet Union. On the 3rd of June, 1988, taking advantage of the weakening of the totalitarian state, some representatives of the intelligentsia founded Sajudis, a democratic reform movement, in Vilnius. The summer of that year was spent under the Sajudis flag, as the entire country was joining Sajudis support groups and holding peaceful meetings. The symbols of the independent country of the inter-war period were introduced publicly. The Constituent Congress of the organisation, held on 22nd-23rd October, defined the guidelines on the basis of which it was decided to move towards the restoration of an independent state. In March 1989 the representatives of the Sajudis won election to the Congress of People’s Deputies, the Soviet Union’s highest legislative body, and were able to fight for Lithuanian interests at the Kremlin in Moscow. At that time, Estonia was the furthest advanced along the path of legal emancipation: already in November 1988 it had adopted a declaration of sovereignty. Urged by the Sajudis, the Lithuanian communist legislature also issued a declaration, in May 1989, stating that the laws of lithuania superseded those of the Soviet Union. An assembly of the People’s Fronts of Latvia and Estonia and Sajudis of lithuania took place during the same month, in Tallinn, which projected a common strategy and tactics for self-liberation from the Soviet occupation. On 23rd August 1989, the 50th Anniversary of the signing of the Hitler-Stalin Pact (Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact), approximately 2 million people from lithuania, Latvia and Estonia stood on the Vilnius-Tallinn road, holding hands. The unprecedented living chain measured nearly 600 km in length. This action for freedom became known as The Baltic Way. During 1989, the political situation in lithuania started increasingly to resemble the life of an independent country: one after the other, the public and even the communist organisations were declaring their separation from Moscow. Upon his arrival in Vilnius in January 1990, Mikhail Gorbachev could no longer restrain the Lithuanian communists, who had separated from Moscow and were demanding total state independence. In February 1990, Sajudis representatives won election to the legislature of lithuania, the Supreme Council, and on the 11th of March the Act of the Restoration of Independence was proclaimed. Vytautas Landsbergis was elected Chairman of the Supreme Council. The difficult transition period leading up to independence de facto and de jure commenced. In January 1991, the Soviet Army seized the Lithuanian Television, radio and other vital state institutions, which at that time were subordinate only to the laws of lithuania. Unarmed, peaceful people offered resistance against the army, and 14 people perished in the effort. A referendum was held on the 9th of February, following the tragic January events, in which an absolute majority of the population of lithuania came out for the restoration of an independent state.

Cooking is good and interesting hobby

I like to make food by myself very much. From the early childhood I have created many new receipts and I think that several are really good. Now I have not much time to do it but after I pass exams I shall definitely continue my experiments.

Approximately ten years ago there was a day when I had nothing to do and fortunately I found a cooking book. It was old German cooking manual with the nice pictures. Although I could not read German but the pictures were very informative. After few hours my kitchen looked as a ruin and all food-stuff was damaged. In spite of this I have become an enthusiastic cooking fan.

Since then my cooking knowledge and experience has improved a lot. Now I specialize in cold meal especially in salad and sandwiches. In fact to make cold snacks you do not need much time and preparation. My favorite salad is made from walnuts and rise. On weekends or holidays I make dinner for my girlfriend or family. Trout in lemon and white vine sauce I cook the best.

Several years ago I have begun to use vines as an ingredient of my dishes. Therefore I analyzed many sorts of it. Furthermore vines are very good addition to meal. I drink white vines while I am eating fish and in my minds eye the best choice is Merceau bur it is expensive and rare. More often I drink Chateau du Paper. With meet I prefer red vines such as Pomerol, red Burgundy and red Bordo.

Cooking is good and interesting hobby. No doubt it is beneficial to know how to make food because you never know what kind of woman you would get.