Cheating Problem at School and university

To combat the recently reported dramatic rise in cheating among college and university students, these institutions should adopt honor codes similar to Groveton’s, which calls for students to agree not to cheat in their academic endeavors and to notify a faculty member if they suspect that others have cheated. Groveton’s honor code replaced an old-fashioned system in which students were closely monitored by teachers and average of thirty cases of cheating per year were reported. The honor code has proven far more successful in the first year it was in place, students reported twenty-one cases of cheating, five years later this figure had dropped to fourteen. Moreover, in a recent survey conducted by Groveton honor council, a majority of students that they would be less likely to cheat with an honor code than without

I take a very difficult exam. I have to study for about one week. But I do not. I read a bit every day and I feel calm, because I know I will be able to cheat. Everybody knows that, but some of my group mates study a lot. They study for themselves, for the future or because they are really interested in that subject. I am not interested at all. After the exam we find out that all students got good marks. But somebody is not satisfied or jealous, so he goes and tells the lecturer the names of those people who cheated. He tells my name too. I am very upset- not because I have cheated, but because I can trust nobody in my group. How could I be so stupid and tell that man such a simple thing…
Cheating is a very popular phenomenon in our country. In other countries the prevalence of cheating differs. And it is a problem of educational system, not of students. When the disciplines are interesting and useful, students are fond of learning, not of cheating. But the worst thing is that nobody can change this system rapidly: it requires much time, money and hard work.
Firstly, honors code like Groveton’s ruins the relationships between students. A student can not trust anybody and tell that he is going to cheat. That is, he has to lie to his mates that he knows a lot, that he has studied for weeks. And it is very difficult (I would say impossible) to find real friends from the university environment. For example, I would not call a friend such a man, to whom I have to lie, who can lodge a complaint against me after every test or exam. The most important thing in friendship is trust and freedom to talk, share impressions. Sometimes it is so great to tell a real friend: “That was the best cheating in my life…”
In our society lots of students’ best friends are from their course. If students would have to sign an honor code, the relationships between them changed a lot. There could be no talk about marriages between group mates, because what is a marriage without trust and supporting a spouse? Or there could be another way out of such situation: to break an oath and to lodge complaints only against some students. But on the other hand, if one breaks an oath, there is no need to report about cheating at all. So what should a poor student do?
Another difficulty is that the information can be not reliable. If one student hates somebody, it is natural that he tries to do harm to the object of hate. And he can say that he is cheating after every exam and test. Karen Horney says that some people are inclined to competitiveness. Such people try to damage a competitor in order to enhance their own position or glory or to keep down a potential rival. For such a man it is more important to see others defeated than to succeed himself. In universities it is natural that they would try to defeat their mates (competitors) in the easiest way- they will tell that others have cheated. And it is very difficult to check such information.
I think that people can not be forced to sign such documents as honor codes, because nobody can make disgraceful people become honorable. The ones who are honorable will not cheat without signing any paper, and the ones who want to cheat, will pay no attention to what they have signed. I think that forcing to sign an honor code would insult me a bit, because I can be honorable without a code, and it is nobody’s business. It is up to me and my conscience to decide whether I will cheat or not.
University is not a secondary school, where students have to learn lots of needless subjects. Almost everything that is taught at universities is necessary for the future job. Students choose a profession to study, which interests them, and so they are fond of learning and knowing a lot.

Cycling As A Means Of Transport

Cycling is a perfect way of travelling, widely known as one of the safest means of transport. When some people choose to wait in a heavy traffic others enjoy a ride on a bicycle without needing to breath the car exhaust fumes and go the the place they want much faster than the first ones.Although much can be said in favor of cycling, much can be said against it as well.
First of all cycling is the most environmentally-freindly means of transport. Bycicles do not create air pollution not to mention the fact that they save your money because cars need petrol and to be repaired. In addition to saving your epenses and reducing pollution, bicycles also save space cause you can park ten bicycles in a parking space required for a one car. What is more cycling helps you to stay fit and healthy as it is a good form of exercise for your whole body and your mentality too. Studys show that even a small amount of cycling can lead to significant gains in fitness. Instead of spending time stuck in a car or bus, you spend it on the bike, there is no need to find extra time to exercise. Furthermore when travelling through a countryside you can enjoy the most wonderfull views and sights.
On the other hand cycling may be a really dangerous means of transport. Nowadays there are many irresponsible young drivers who are the first to blame in case of an acident cause these drivers not always give way to the cyclist. Moreover the fumes from cars and lories are bad for your helath. In fact in some citys around the world the fumes are so bad that cyclist are forced to wear masks to protect them from pollution. Besides you could not protect yourself from bad weather conditions which can easily catch you unprepared by surprise.
To sum up, if cycling isn’t as fast and comfortable means of transport as mothorized fully-equiped vehichles but it is our health that we should regard to and remember that when riding a bicycle you can enjoy the fact that not only you are getting to your desirable destination but you are also getting fit at the same time.

Traffic problems in our country and the ways to solve them

People travel to work and faces with various problems in every country. The increase of humans requirement for comfortable traveling causes problems of communication and transportation and it is getting more and more urgent in our days.

In our country most people travel to work either by cars or by buses, in largest cities by troleybuses. There are very few lucky people who can walk to work. Rush hour is not a new thing in Lithuania. Driving to work, with the congestion and difficulty finding parking space is really annoying. In addition, it is not the cheapest, not the healthiest and not environmentally friendly way of traveling. In spite of this, people in our country are not going to refuse their cars, which are mostly old and their exhaust fumes is full of lead.

The best way to solve traffic problems is to change your car in to the bicycle. This is more healthy and environmentally friendly way of traveling. More over it does not cost anything and it is impossible to get in to the traffic jam going by bicycle. Of course, it is not available in winter. In that case we should use public transport to avoid traffic problems and air pollution increase.

The government is building some new roads, improving the old ones, building bridges and motorways to solve the traffic problems in our city. The idea of new metro is being discussed. They are also building new pedestrian precincts, cycling roads in parks and around the city, but not enough in my opinion.

Lithuania was trying to fight traffic problems with free bicycles. According to Reuters the city has put 500 bicycles around the city for free use. The idea was that anyone can use the bikes as long as they leave the it for others after they finish their ride. But unfortunately this idea became “steal the orange bike” action.

To conclude, until we, people, would not understand, that the best way to solve motor traffic problems is to decline motor traffic, we will poison ourselves, and disease,such as cancer will survive…

My first bicycle

I will tell you a story which i called –bikes. Actually I don’t remember my first bike but I will try to recreate my memories about it. As I remember it was green collored with pink wings. It was present from my good neighbour friend .She presented that bike to me because she bought new one and that old one she didn’t want to through away. Now I remember clearly how I was riding with that bike and my mother was holding me behind it. The first time was enough hard because I could not to concentrate me attention but day after day I was learning to do it well and finally I learnt. Ride bicycle was very funny . I remember when my friends bought bikes too then we were riding through the all city until midnight, without any lights or helmets . I know that it was dangerous, but I was cool. And every day the same. That bike was my casuality. I remember that once we were riding and we were in very good mood , we were screaming something like cannibals or crazy people. Next time we were screaming like that – Hey young lady Danguole which lives in Salomeja 51, where are you going? I don’t ride bike so often as I used to. Maybe the reason is that I don’t have so much time. But I have extra case that I am riding when my best friend comes to me then we take our ancient grandmothers bikes and after that we are going to scare people. I can describe how looks my bike like. It is yellow, with big wheels, extra seat on the back and with breaks which don’t work. My mum calls that bike – The masculine bike. It looks really terrible. And when I am cycling with that beauty ( rasyti kabutese) through the city that moments are very funny when people pay attention on you because you made them laugh of your bike appearance … So… That was the story about two bikes which weren’t my own, but with them I was riding mostly.

Computers Make Our Life Easier

Now the computer is very important invention for us. The first electronic computer was invented in 1950. The first computer was very big and not very clever. Now the computer is very small and modern. We can carry modern computer in the little bag. With computer we can do a lot of things, for example: play, write, listen the music, watch TV, read news papers and magazines, paint, count and do other things. With computer we can control technical machines. We use computer in schools, factories, offices, aeroplanes, trains, at home – everywhere.

Computer – it`s a machine for carrying out calculations and performing specified transformations on information, such as storing, sorting, correlating, retrieving and processing data. The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy. Secondly computers distract from social interactions such as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home and use their computer. Finally, the most persuasive argument against the use of computers is that the more jobs are done by computers the less are done by people. It isn`t very good for increasing people population.
However, the advantages of computers are numerous, such as undeniable educational benefits, especially to children. School subjects become more interesting when presented on a computer screen. Moreover, computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games which can be played on them. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at he touch of the button.
I think computer has a lot of disadvantages and advantages. Yet, despite the health problems, risk to jobs and personal interaction, it seems that as long as the use of computers is regulated the benefits computers provide to education and businesses are invaluable. Computers make our life easier.

“We live in the age of information”

 

The safe internet

We live in the age of information. The latest technologies develop every day and even every minute. Now we can find a needed person in a very short time using e-mail, mobile technologies, paging system and others. There are no inaccessible places in the world, so the distances now seem not so big as it looked hundred years ago.
The most important way of communication nowadays is Internet. It started in 1960 when some governmental organizations in the US wanted to connect their systems in a very reliable net, that couldn’t be affected by war. Later it developed and now we have a big computer network all over the world.
Nowadays people use the internet for everything, for casual work like buying food, reading books, talking to friends. Customers discover that they can send messages to more than 30 mln people all over the world and hold conferences about anything they want to. It improves communication process, makes it easier.
On the other hand, there are some negative aspects of internet. Crime has been a growing problem all over the world for the last 30 years and now, it seems like there is no better place like internet to cheat .
Everyone, has tried differents chat portals. There you can meet your old friends, or on the contrary, to make some new ones. Suddenly, people don‘t even notice how they start to rely on new fellows and believe every single word. Despite that, it could be worse if you decide to meet friends like that in reality, because you can see not what you expected to see. Your virtual friend could be absolutely different from the one, you talked on the Net. Or even worse…he could hurt you, he could use physical violence against you.
However, that‘s not all…Remote communication suits people mentality. People get used to discuss everything using e-mails, or some other message sending system, but, on the other hand, they would rather go down to the pub or a restaurant, because some problems are too complicated to explain in virtual reality, especially if they involve facts and figures.
Children…they also use the net to play games or to communicate with friends. Everything would be alright if there were only webs with decent content. Unfortunately there is not. There are millions of websites with pornography, cruelty, vice matters. It harms children‘s minds, it‘s bad for children‘s individual development.
Nobody can deny that children are very curiuos. The net proposes virtual reality shops, where people can buy everything they want to. But, if children surf the net without adults being around, who would stop them from ordering some things or facilities from shops like that? It could be a real challenge for all family budget.
In conclusion, first step to make you and your children safe when you are surfing the net, is to know about all dangers and only then trying to avoid them. It is essential to speak about problems like that, because the net is not only a good implement to improve our knowledge, to communicate with people, it also takes a big part of our everyday life. All we have to do is to use it for right purposes.

South bank centre – history and development

 

Southbank Centre is a complex of artistic venues located in London, UK, on the South Bank of the River Thames between County Hall and Waterloo Bridge. It comprises three main buildings; the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall and The Hayward art gallery, and is Europe’s largest centre for the arts. Prior to a rebranding in early 2007, it was known as the South Bank Centre.

Southbank Centre’s 21 acre estate, from Waterloo Bridge to the London Eye.
Nearby, although not part of Southbank Centre, are the National Theatre and BFI Southbank. This is one of the most popular public spaces in London, part of a pedestrian-friendly stretch of the river extending eastwards from Westminster Bridge, past The London Eye, Southbank Centre, Tate Modern and the new Shakespeare’s Globe to the east.
In all, Southbank Centre manages a 21 acre (85,000 m²) site from County Hall to Waterloo Bridge, and includes the Purcell Room, Saison Poetry Library, Jubilee Gardens and The Queen’s Walk, attracting more than three million visitors annually. Nearly a thousand paid performances of music, dance and literature are staged at Southbank Centre each year, as well as over 300 free foyer events and an education programme, in and around the performing arts venues. In addition, three to six major art exhibitions per annum are presented at The Hayward, whilst National Touring Exhibitions reach over 100 venues across the UK.
In February 2002, Lord Hollick was appointed Chairman of the South Bank Board Limited, the parent company of Southbank Centre. In May of the same year, Michael Lynch, former Chief Executive of Sydney Opera House, was appointed Chief Executive. September 2005 saw the arrival of Jude Kelly as Southbank Centre’s Artistic Director.
The closest Underground stations are Waterloo and Embankment.
History and development
Visitors to the Festival of Britain in front of the Dome of Discovery.
The history of Southbank Centre can be traced back to the Festival of Britain, held in 1951. In what was described as “a tonic for the nation” by Herbert Morrison, the Labour Party government minister responsible for the event, the Festival of Britain aimed to demonstrate Britain’s recovery from World War II by showcasing the best in science, technology, arts and industrial design. The Festival of Britain ran from May to September 1951, and by June the following year most of it had been dismantled, following the victory of Winston Churchill and the Conservative Party in the general election of 1951. The Royal Festival Hall is the only surviving building from the Festival of Britain.
In the period 1962-65, the Royal Festival Hall was extended towards the river and Waterloo Station and refurbished. The London County Council (later, Greater Londo Council) took the decision, in 1955, to build a second concert hall and an art gallery on the eastern part of the South Bank site previously occupied by a lead works and shot tower (and which had been earmarked as a site for the National Theatre. It was another 12 years before the Queen Elizabeth Hall and linked the Purcell Room opened to the public. Collectively, the venues were to be known as South Bank Concert Halls. In 1968, The Hayward opened, albeit under direct management of the Arts Council. The new buildings had their main entrances at first floor level and were linked by an extensive elevated concrete walkway system to the Royal Festival Hall and the Shell Centre. This vertical separation of pedestrian and vehicle traffic proved unpopular due to the difficulty pedestrians had in navigating through the complex, and the dark and under-used spaces at ground level below the walkways.
Following abolition of the Greater London Council in 1986, the South Bank Board was formed to take over operational control of the concert halls. The following year, the South Bank Board took over the administrative running of The Hayward from the Arts Council. Collectively, the arts venues, along with Jubilee Gardens, were to be known as Southbank Centre, becoming responsible to Arts Council England as an independent arts institution (after transitional arrangements).
The walkway on the east side of the RFH, running along Belvedere Road towards the Shell Centre was removed circa 1990, to restore ground level circulation. Southbank Centre’s Waterloo Site (the late 1960s buildings) has been the subject of various plans for modification or reconstruction, in particular a scheme developed by Richard Rogers in the mid 1990s which would have involved a great glass roof over the existing three buildings. This did not proceed due to the high degree of National Lottery funding required and likely high cost.
In 2000, a masterplan for the entire Southbank Centre site was produced by Rick Mather Architects. The main features of the masterplan are: a new administration building for members of staff, now completed and occupied; the removal of access for delivery vehicles to the south of the Hungerford Bridge approach viaduct and east of The Hayward (by Waterloo Bridge); the creation of three new public spaces around the RFH (Festival Riverside, Southbank Centre Square and Festival Terrace); modification of the Queen Elizabeth Hall undercroft and the lower two levels of The Hayward to provide a frontage onto Southbank Centre Square; and a new British Film Institute building partly underground on the Hungerford Car Park site. The developments at Southbank Centre since 2000 have been undertaken in line with the Rick Mather Masterplan.

Outdoor events at The Overture, a free three-day festival to mark the reopening of Southbank Centre’s Royal Festival Hall, attended by over a quarter of a million people.
The Southbank Centre implemented a major development and refurbishment plan in the period 2004-7. A slim new glass-fronted building, providing office space for Southbank Centre staff, as well as a range of new shops and restaurants, was inserted between the RFH and the approach viaduct to Hungerford Bridge. This new building was designed by Allies and Morrison, with detail design by Building Design Partnership who were commissioned by the contractor, Taylor Woodrow, and was completed in 2006.
Also begun at this time and completed in July 2005 was the insertion of new retail units to the low level Thames elevation of the Royal Festival Hall, using the space below the walkway added in the mid 1960s. This development was designed by Allies and Morrison and the main contractors were ISG InteriorExterior. Gross Max were the landscape architects for the new public spaces surrounding the Royal Festival Hall.
The refurbishment of the RFH took place in 2005-7. In the RFH auditorium, the natural acoustic has been enhanced to meet classical music requirements, while being flexible enough to suit the demands of amplified sound. Other features of the refurbished RFH include reconfigured seating and upgrades to production facilities and public areas, particularly a range of new bar areas, the removal of most retail outlets from foyer spaces and newly refurbished lifts and WCs.
The Southbank Centre Car Park, Belvedere Road site lies south of the Royal Festival Hall and the Hungerford Bridge approach viaduct. The site was designated as Metropolitan Open Land by London Borough of Lambeth Council in 2006.
One of the more notable temporary art works to appear at Southbank Centre was Polaris by David Machh, exhibited in 1983 on the now-removed walkway outside the eastern facade of the Royal Festival Hall, near The Hayward. This consisted of 6,000 car tyres arranged as a lifesize replica of a Polaris nuclear submarine, a controversial political subject of the time. An arsonist tried to burn it down, suffering fatal burns in the process.

How can we make our City a better place to live in?

The living conditions in our city are getting worse and worse. We should do something before it is too late. Air pollution is a very important problem in our town. The biggest air polluters are cars. They emit very toxic fumes. To prevent pollution, governments should improve public transport, build bicycles tracks, offer to people to buy more modern and less polluting vehicles.
Water pollution is a serious problem caused by human activities. Factories dump their garbage into the sea or rivers. We have to teach to the world that water is our life and we must save it. For example we can stop using the products of companies whose factories cause pollution and not respecting laws and so on.
There is a lot of rubbish in the streets of our town. And I think that we have to install more litter bins in the streets and parks. Government must strictly fine people who litter up rubbish .
Everybody likes picnics near the river. After picnic peoples leave a lot of plastic bottles and packing. It is very pathetic sight. We must think that we are killing ourselves. We have to say our friends not to litter because it is very bad indeed for our environment.
We must think that we pollute our own air , ground and water.

Internet: Terminology, history, structure and growth

 

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a “network of networks” that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW).
Terminology
The Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc. In contrast, the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is one of the services accessible via the Internet, along with various others including e-mail, file sharing, online gaming and others described below. However, “the Internet” and “the Web” are commonly used interchangeably in non-technical settings.
History
The USSR’s launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution.
Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to ircuit cswitching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between UCLA and SRI International in Menlo Park, California, on October 29, 1969. The ARPANET was one of the “eve” networks of today’s Internet. Following on from the demonstration that packet switching worked on the ARPANET, the British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated to create the first international packet-switched network service. In the UK, this was referred to as the International Packet Stream Service (IPSS), in 1978. The collection of X.25-based networks grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981. The X.25 packet switching standard was developed in the CCITT (now called ITU-T) around 1976. X.25 was independent of the TCP/IP protocols that arose from the experimental work of DARPA on the ARPANET, Packet Radio Net and Packet Satellite Net during the same time period. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May 1974. Use of the term “Internet” to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974 with the publication of RFC 675, the first full specification of TCP that was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal a

nd Carl Sunshine, then at Stanford University. During the next nine years, work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems.
The first TCP/IP-wide area network was made operational by January 1, 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols to TCP/IP. In 1985, the United States’ National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned the construction of a university 56 kilobit/second network backbone using computers called “fuzzballs” by their inventor, David L. Mills. The following year, NSF sponsored the development of a higher-speed 1.5 megabit/second backbone that became the NSFNet. A key decision to use the DARPA TCP/IP protocols was made by Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer program at NSF.
The opening of the network to commercial interests began in 1988. The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial electronic e-mail services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet Service Providers were created: UUNET, PSINET and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth, although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of commercial routers from companies such as Cisco Systems, Proteon and Juniper, the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local-area networking and the widespread implementation of TCP/IP on the UNIX operating system.
Growth
Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost a decade, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. On August 6, 1991, CERN, which straddles the border between France and Switzerland, publicized the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.
An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, based upon HyperCard. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet. By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web.
Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997. This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.
University students’ appreciation and contributions
New findings in the field of communications during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were quickly adopted by universities across North America.
Examples of early university Internet communities are Cleveland FreeNet, Blacksburg Electronic Village and NSTN in Nova Scotia. Students took up the opportunity of free communications and saw this new phenomenon as a tool of liberation. Personal computers and the Internet would free them from corporations and governments (Nelson, Jennings, Stallman).
Graduate students played a huge part in the creation of ARPANET. In the 1960s, the network working group, which did most of the design for ARPANET’s protocols, was composed mainly of graduate students.
Today’s Internet

The server rack. From the top, user file storage “bigma” (the master database server), and two IBM blade centers containing multi-purpose machines (Apache front ends, Apache back ends, slave MySQL database servers, load balancers, file servers, cache servers and sync masters).
Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies.
As of March 31, 2008, 1.407 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats.
Internet protocols

For more details on this topic, see Internet Protocols.
In this context, there are three layers of protocols:
• At the lower level (OSI layer 3) is IP (Internet Protocol), which defines the datagrams or packets that carry blocks of data from one node to another. The vast majority of today’s Internet uses version four of the IP protocol (i.e. IPv4), and, although IPv6 is standardized, it exists only as “islands” of connectivity, and there are many ISPs without any IPv6 connectivity. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) also exists at this level. ICMP is connectionless; it is used for control, signaling, and error reporting purposes.
• TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) exist at the next layer up (OSI layer 4); these are the protocols by which data is transmitted. TCP makes a virtual “connection”, which gives some level of guarantee of reliability. UDP is a best-effort, connectionless transport, in which data packets that are lost in transit will not be re-sent.
• The application protocols sit on top of TCP and UDP and occupy layers 5, 6, and 7 of the OSI model. These define the specific messages and data formats sent and understood by the applications running at each end of the communication. Examples of these protocols are HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.
Internet structure
There have been many analyses of the Internet and its structure. For example, it has been determined that the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks.
Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as:
• GEANT
• GLORIAD
• The Internet2 Network (formally known as the Abilene Network)
• JANET (the UK’s national research and education network)
These in turn are built around relatively smaller networks. See also the list of academic computer network organizations.
In network diagrams, the Internet is often represented by a cloud symbol, into and out of which network communications can pass.
ICANN

ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey, California, United States
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and protocol port and parameter numbers. A globally unified namespace (i.e., a system of names in which there is at most one holder for each possible name) is essential for the Internet to function. ICANN is headquartered in Marina del Rey, California, but is overseen by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and non-commercial communities. The US government continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the root zone file that lies at the heart of the domain name system. Because the Internet is a distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected networks, the Internet, as such, has no governing body. ICANN’s role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet, but the scope of its authority extends only to the Internet’s systems of domain names, IP addresses, protocol ports and parameter numbers.
On November 16, 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.
Language
The prevalent language for communication on the Internet is English. This may be a result of the Internet’s origins, as well as English’s role as the lingua franca. It may also be related to the poor capability of early computers, largely originating in the United States, to handle characters other than those in the English variant of the Latin alphabet.
After English (31% of Web visitors) the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (16%), Spanish (9%), Japanese (7%), German (5%) and French (5%).
By continent, 37% of the world’s Internet users are based in Asia, 27% in Europe, 19% in North America, and 9% in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Internet’s technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in most widely used languages. However, some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of foreign language characters, also known as kryakozyabry) still remain.
Internet and the workplace
The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and Web applications.
The Internet viewed on mobile devices
The Internet can now be accessed virtually anywhere by numerous means. Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a cellular network supporting that device’s technology.
Common uses of the Internet
The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Even today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender’s and the recipient’s control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organization’s network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them.
The World Wide Web

Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (or just the Web) interchangeably, but, as discussed above, the two terms are not synonymous.
The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the web servers and other machines that store originals, and cached copies, of these resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet.
Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data.
Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed user agents. In normal use, web browsers, such as Internet Explorer and Firefox, access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain almost any combination of computer data including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content including games, office applications and scientific demonstrations.
Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, millions of people worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information and data.
Using the Web, it is also easier than ever before for individuals and organisations to publish ideas and information to an extremely large audience. Anyone can find ways to publish a web page or build a website for very little initial cost. Publishing and maintaining large, professional websites full of attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however.
Many individuals and some companies and groups use “web logs” or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Some commercial organisations encourage staff to fill them with advice on their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public’s interest in their work.
Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts.
Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.
In the early days, web pages were usually created as sets of complete and isolated HTML text files stored on a web server. More recently, websites are more often created using content management system (CMS) or wiki software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organisation or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.
Remote access
The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements.
This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information e-mailed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.
An office worker away from his desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet. This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data, including e-mail and other applications, while away from the office.
This concept is also referred to by some network security people as the Virtual Private Nightmare, because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees’ homes; this has been the source of some notable security breaches, but also provides security for the workers.
Collaboration
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and test, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place, even among niche interests. An example of this is the free software movement in software development, which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and OpenOffice.org (formerly known as Netscape Communicator and StarOffice). Films such as Zeitgeist, Loose Change and Endgame have had extensive coverage on the Internet, while being virtually ignored in the mainstream media.
Internet “chat”, whether in the form of IRC “chat rooms” or channels, or via instant messaging systems, allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Messages can be sent and viewed even more quickly and conveniently than via e-mail. Extension to these systems may allow files to be exchanged, “whiteboard” drawings to be shared as well as voice and video contact between team members.
Version control systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents without either accidentally overwriting each other’s work or having members wait until they get “sent” documents to be able to add their thoughts and changes.
File sharing
A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. It can be put into a “shared location” or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of “mirror” servers or peer-to-peer networks.
In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication; the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands before or after access to the file is given. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed—hopefully fully encrypted—across the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests.
These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the basis for the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.
Internet collaboration technology enables business and project teams to share documents, calendars and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.
Streaming media
Many existing radio and television broadcasters provide Internet “feeds” of their live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet “broadcasters” who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. The range of material is much wider, from pornography to highly specialized, technical webcasts. Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is first downloaded in full and then may be played back on a computer or shifted to a digital audio player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material on a worldwide basis.
Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, the traffic at a local roundabout or their own premises, live and in real time. Video chat rooms, video conferencing, and remote controllable webcams are also popular. Many uses can be found for personal webcams in and around the home, with and without two-way sound.
YouTube, sometimes described as an Internet phenomenon because of the vast amount of users and how rapidly the site’s popularity has grown, was founded on February 15, 2005. It is now the leading website for free streaming video. It uses a flash-based web player which streams video files in the format FLV. Users are able to watch videos without signing up; however, if users do sign up they are able to upload an unlimited amount of videos and they are given their own personal profile. It is currently estimated that there are 64,000,000 videos on YouTube, and it is also currently estimated that 825,000 new videos are uploaded every day.
Voice telephony (VoIP)
VoIP stands for Voice over IP, where IP refers to the Internet Protocol that underlies all Internet communication. This phenomenon began as an optional two-way voice extension to some of the instant messaging systems that took off around the year 2000. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the actual voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a normal telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL.
Thus, VoIP is maturing into a viable alternative to traditional telephones. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive VoIP modems are now available that eliminate the need for a PC.
Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls.
Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialling and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure; VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the electronics.
Most VoIP providers offer unlimited national calling, but the direction in VoIP is clearly toward global coverage with unlimited minutes for a low monthly fee.
VoIP has also become increasingly popular within the gaming world, as a form of communication between players. Popular gaming VoIP clients include Ventrilo and Teamspeak, and there are others available also. The PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features.
Common methods of home access include dial-up, landline broadband (over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell phones.
Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available. There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in some cases just for brief use while standing. Various terms are used, such as “public Internet kiosk”, “public access terminal”, and “Web payphone”. Many hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. A whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench.
Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services.
High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used. An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online.
Social impact
The Internet has made possible entirely new forms of social interaction, activities and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access.
Social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace have created a new form of socialization and interaction. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of items to their personal pages, to indicate common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find a large circle of existing acquaintances, especially if a site allows users to utilize their real names, and to allow communication among large existing groups of people.
Sites like meetup.com exist to allow wider announcement of groups which may exist mainly for face-to-face meetings, but which may have a variety of minor interactions over their group’s site at meetup.org, or other similar sites.
Political organization and censorship
In democratic societies, the Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States became famous for its ability to generate donations via the Internet. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a whole new method of organizing, in order to carry out Internet activism.
Some governments, such as those of Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the People’s Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content. This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.
In Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily (possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law) agreed to restrict access to sites listed by police. While this list of forbidden URLs is only supposed to contain addresses of known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.
Many countries, including the United States, have enacted laws making the possession or distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, illegal, but do not use filtering software.
There are many free and commercially available software programs with which a user can choose to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, such as to limit a child’s access to pornography or violence.
Leisure activites
The Internet has been a major source of leisure since before the World Wide Web, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much of the main traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas.
The and gambling industries have both taken full advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other websites. Although many governments have attempted to put restrictions on both industries’ use of the Internet, this has generally failed to stop their widespread popularity.
One main area of leisure on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. This form of leisure creates communities, bringing people of all ages and origins to enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing games to online gambling. This has revolutionized the way many people interact and spend their free time on the Internet.
While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with services such as GameSpy and MPlayer, to which players of games would typically subscribe. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of gameplay or certain games.
Many use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. As discussed above, there are paid and unpaid sources for all of these, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Discretion is needed as some of these sources take more care over the original artists’ rights and over copyright laws than others.
Many use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book holidays and to find out more about their random ideas and casual interests.
People use chat, messaging and e-mail to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. Social networking websites like MySpace, Facebook and many others like them also put and keep people in contact for their enjoyment.
The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops, where users can access their files, folders, and settings via the Internet.
Cyberslacking has become a serious drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spends 57 minutes a day surfing the Web at work, according to a study by Peninsula Business Services.
Complex architecture
Many computer scientists see the Internet as a “prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system”. The Internet is extremely heterogeneous. (For instance, data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely.) The Internet exhibits “emergent phenomena” that depend on its large-scale organization. For example, data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity. Further adding to the complexity of the Internet is the ability of more than one computer to use the Internet through only one node, thus creating the possibility for a very deep and hierarchal sub-network that can theoretically be extended infinitely (disregarding the programmatic limitations of the IPv4 protocol). However, since principles of this architecture date back to the 1960s, it might not be a solution best suited to modern needs, and thus the possibility of developing alternative structures is currently being looked into.
According to a June 2007 article in Discover magazine, the combined weight of all the electrons moved within the Internet in a day is 0.2 millionths of an ounce. Others have estimated this at nearer 2 ounces (50 grams).
Marketing
The Internet has also become a large market for companies; some of the biggest companies today have grown by taking advantage of the efficient nature of low-cost advertising and commerce through the Internet, also known as e-commerce. It is the fastest way to spread information to a vast number of people simultaneously. The Internet has also subsequently revolutionized shopping—for example; a person can order a CD online and receive it in the mail within a couple of days, or download it directly in some cases. The Internet has also greatly facilitated personalized marketing which allows a company to market a product to a specific person or a specific group of people more so than any other advertising medium.
Examples of personalized marketing include online communities such as MySpace, Friendster, Orkut, Facebook and others which thousands of Internet users join to advertise themselves and make friends online. Many of these users are young teens and adolescents ranging from 13 to 25 years old. In turn, when they advertise themselves they advertise interests and hobbies, which online marketing companies can use as information as to what those users will purchase online, and advertise their own companies’ products to those users.
The terms internet and Internet

Like any noun, Internet is written with a capital first letter when it is a proper noun and without capitalization when it is a common noun. The Internet Society, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and several other Internet-related organizations use this convention in their publications. Originally, Internet was used without placement of the word the before Internet, as with the acronym ARPANET. Eventually, use of the term “the Internet” won out in the popular lexicon, perhaps due to confusion with “the Word Wide Web”. Ironically, this change was not a subject of wide debate, though it led to subsequent debates over the continued capitalization of Internet
Others assert that the first letter should be in lower case (internet), and that the specific article the is sufficient to distinguish “the internet” from other internets; in other words, that the word internet is always a common noun. This requires that the reader depend on context to understand whether “the internet” refers to an internet the writer has previously mentioned or to the well-known world-wide network. A significant number of publications use this form, including The Economist, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Financial Times, The Guardian, The Times, and The Sydney Morning Herald. As of 2005, many publications using internet appear to be located outside of North America—although one U.S. news source, Wired News, has adopted the lower-case spelling.
Historically, Internet and internet have had different meanings, with internet meaning “an interconnected set of distinct networks”, i.e. a network of networks, and Internet referring to the largest internet, the worldwide, publicly-available IP internet. In this usage, the Internet is the familiar network on which public Web sites exist; however, an internet is any network of smaller networks. Any group of networks connected together is an internet; each of these networks may or may not be part of the Internet. The distinction is evident in many RFCs, books, and articles from the 1980s and early 1990s (some of which, such as RFC 1918, refer to “internets” in the plural). Some argue that the usage apparently agreed by the IETF, ICANN, the W3C, and the Internet Society is by definition the correct usage.

References
• Media Freedom Internet Cookbook by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Vienna, 2004
• Living Internet—Internet history and related information, including information from many creators of the Internet
• First Monday peer-reviewed journal on the Internet
• How Much Does The Internet Weigh? by Stephen Cass, Discover 2007
• Rehmeyer, Julie J. 2007. Mapping a medusa: The Internet spreads its tentacles. Science News 171(June 23):387-388. Available at http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20070623/fob2.asp .
• Castells, M. 1996. Rise of the Network Society. 3 vols. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
• Castells, M. (2001), “Lessons from the History of Internet”, in “The Internet Galaxy”, Ch. 1, pp 9-35. Oxford Univ. Press.

Lithuanian basketball: pass, present and future

 

In 1891 American teacher invented basketball. Year after year it became more and more popular, people played basketball in more and more countries. In 1922 Steponas Darius brought it to Lithuania. It became popular so fast, as TV after World War II.
Level of Lithuanian basketball was so high, that in 1935 Lithuanian team played in the European championship. In 1935 championship took place in Riga (Latvia). Lithuanians were debutantes, and nobody could hope, that debutantes could be among leaders, but Lithuanians were! Lithuanians weren`t champions!
In 1939 the occurred in Kaunas. A new Sport Hall was built for this occasion, and sportsmen still play basketball in it now. Lithuanian team became the winner of this competition again.
Women have never remained in the background of men. All time they tried to be in the same level like men and they always do it. European championship in 1938 was very successful and Lithuanian sportswomen won silver medals.
World War II didn`t stop development of Lithuanian basketball. In the time of the war, legendary players, champions of Europe, ran to the West, but Lithuanian basketball wasn’t dead. A few students team won the first Soviet Union championship in 1947. It was the start of the history of the biggest, grandest, and greatest Lithuanian Basketball club “Zalgiris” (Green Wood). The name of this club comes from the battle in 1410, when Lithuanians beated the crusaders. This battle is named Grunwald in German or Zalgiris in Lithuanian.
All the time, when Lithuania endured yoke of Soviet Union, Lithuanian basketball was predominated in all Union. All the time Lithuanian players played in combined teams.
In 1978-1981 one of the greatest Lithuanian players’ generations started forming. In 1982 Arvydas Sabonis came to “Zalgiris”. He started playing in professional team, when he was only seventeen and he is still playing now. In 1983 the biggest fights between “Zalgiris” and CSKA from Moscow started. It was not Moscow team; it was a team of all Soviet Union. The most players were subjugated by the way of deception. Soviet bureaucrats wanted Lithuanian players to play in Moscow team too, but Lithuanians looked smarterd, and they didn’t let them go.
For Example, Soviets wanted Sabonis to play in CSKA. At the same day, when Sabonis finished secondary school, soviets came to school and tried to take Sabonis to the army. But Lithuanians were faster. Sabonis was already studying at Kaunas high school!
All time Lithuanians hadn’t ways to the Europe. Till 1984, “Žalgiris” has never played with the teams from the West. Only “thaw” in Soviet Union and reorganization of Mikhail Gorbachiov gave a chance for “Žalgiris”. These chances were unbelievable. In 1985 “Zalgiris” lost only in the final of EuroCup and in 1986 “Zalgiris” lost to Cibona Zagreb in the final of European Cup of Champions. Competitions of Soviet Union were lucky too. Three years (1985-19870 “Zalgiris” became the champion of the Union.
In 1986 “Zalgiris” got a chance to play in Jones Cup Competition. At this time it was World Club Championship. “Zalgiris” became the winner! 200 000 people waited for “Zalgiris” in Kaunas Karmelava Airport!
In 1989, Sarunas Marciulionis became the first player from East Europe, who played in National Basketball Association (NBA). USSR didn’t let to play in this professional American league, but in 1989, the Soviet Union wasn’t so strong like in 1970 or 1980, and Marciulionis broke the ice.
In 1992 Lithuania has already the freedom. Lithuania played in Barcelona Olympic Games. Nobody could understand, how a country, which is free only 2 years, and which has only 3 000 000 population, can have such a good basketball team. Lithuanian national team won the bronze medals! Only then everybody understood, that in all national USSR teams played many Lithuanians, when USSR won the greatest victories. For example, in the USSR team, which won Gold in Seoul Olympic Games, four players in start composition were Lithuanians. Sabonis, Marciulionis, Kurtinaitis, Chomicius and others the first big victory to free Lithuania.
After “Barcelona`92” crisis took all basketball in Lithuania. The best players went to the West, there were no money for sport in young and poor country. Only national team showed good results, when all players from the West played. In 1996 Lithuanian team won the third place in Atlanta Olympic Games again. Stars played in the West, but they didn’t let basketball die and helped them. Sabonis and Marciulionis built few basketball schools for children.
Trainers in Lithuania work heavily and patiently and they did their work very good. They raised a new generation of players, which wasn`t worse than the last one.
In 1994 Jonas Kazlauskas came to “Zalgiris”. He was a young trainer, without big experience, but with the best wishes and great ambitions. He was democratic, new style trainer. He took young players and started to make stars. He showed that basketball is a team sport and one or two players can’t win match. Kazlauskas learned together with players. Results didn’t come at the same time. In 1996 “Zalgiris” lost in semifinal of Cup Winners Cup, in 1997 “Zalgiris” lost in 1/8 final. In 1998 “Zalgiris” surprised all the Europe. “Zalgiris” won Euro Cup! It was the first J. Kazlauskas and all “Zalgiris” triumph. In the last (1998-1999) season, “Zalgiris” started playing in EuroLeague. Nobody looked to debutante, like to the potential competitioner. But military leader J. Kazlauskas and “Zalgiris” didn’t want to stop. There’re no stars, no big money, but fast, nice, commnadly play was the guaranty of luck. “Zalgiris” won the Cup of EuroLeague! “Zalgiris” (see picture in file zalgiris98-99) showed that money cannot win, only the team can win.
Women didn’t fall. In 1997 national Lithuanian team became the European champions. Men in 1995 were “only” second.
If you want to get big victories, you need some intelligence and some organization. Lithuanians don’t complain that they feel shortage of it. At once after getting freedom, Lithuanians started to build national basketball system. Sarunas Marciulionis was the fundamental organizer and sponsor. In 1994 Lithuanian Basketball League (LKL) was founded. It was very important. Marciulionis played in NBA for a long time, so he knew, how to make the same in Lithuania. LKL matches are very interesting and persistent.
Sarunas Marciulionis didn`t stop, when he founded LKL. Northern European Basketball League (NEBL) was founded in 1998. NEBL is made by NBA model. In 1999 took place the first Promotion Cup. In 2000 the first official inaugural NEBL season will start. The Northern European Basketball League was founded with the cooperation of five Northern European nations: Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden. The goals of NEBL are:
To be the top Northern European professional basketball league;
To keep basketball as the leading sport in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania;
To make basketball the leading sport in Sweden and Finland;
To support all the league’s clubs and players;
To create a united market & sponsorship programs for Northern European countries;
To attain creative support from the NBA.
The NEBL will tip off its first season in 2000 with plans to expand the league to include the top teams from Denmark, Norway and Ukraine. Russia and Belarus have both shown interest in joining the league as it continues to grow and could be added in later seasons.
Basketball in Lithuania is very popular. The most popular TV programs are basketball matches. Everybody in Lithuania knows what the basketball is. Young and old play basketball. Thousands celebrate victories. Lithuania isn’t only amber country; it’s basketball country too. Basketball is the second Lithuanian religion.

“ABOUT… PEOPLE and TRIPS”

 

Charles Chaplin

Charles Spencer Chaplin was the comedian, the greatest film comic in the history of mankind. The actor was born in 1889 in the London East End. Sydney was his brother, fuor years older than Charles. Chaplin’s parents were actors. Two children adored their mother for her blue eyes and long light brown hair. Littlle Charlie cuoldn’t remember his father. Mother told him that he was a very good artist. But the trouble was he drank too much. Taht was the cause of their separation. During Charlie’s chidhood, the family travelled a lot in England.
At the age of 14, Charlie became a dancer in the music hall. After some time he joined the actors group where he played the main comedy parts. In 1913 Chaplin went to the United States. There he became the world famous star. Later the actor built his own film studios and in 1920 was the producer of his ows work. Charles Chaplin worked in Hollywood till 1952. The actor had several invitations from the Academy to receive a special Academy award for his films.
His most famous films are: “A dog’s life”, “The kid” (1917-1918), “The gold rush” (1925), “City light” (1931), “Modern times” (1936). His last American film, “Limelight”, was made in 1952. “A king in New York” which Chaplin made in England in 1957, reflected his bitterness towards America. Charles Chaplin made his film “A countess from Hong Kong” at the age of 77 in London in 1966. The film was not a critical or commercial success.
In 1952 the famous actor went to Switzerland. People loved him as a circus clown. During the intervals of film making Charles Chaplin wrope “My autobiography”. The world famous comedian died in 1977.

Galileo

Galileo, an Italian, invented the telescope over three hundred and fifty years ago. As he could see so far with the instrument, he called it a “telescopio”, from the Greek word “teleskopos”, which means “seeing from a distance”. The “tele” part of the Greek word means “far off”. The English form of the Italian “telescopio” is “telescope”.
Many scientists had followed Galileo’s invention. They created words beginning with “tele”. A telephone brings voices from far off, the telegraph bringst writing from far off, and television brings pictures from a distance. The “vision” part of “television” comes from the Latin word “videre” that is “to see” and “video”, which is another word for “television”, is just the Latin word for “I see”.
When radio was invented, the word “broadcast” was used to describe what was transmitted by radio. The word “broadcast” means “to scatter abroad”. Now pictures are sent abroad as well as voices, and a new English word has been made up from “television” and “broadcast” – “telecast”.

The elderly in America

The United States has been criticized for its treatment of its elderly citizens. Although in many other countries the elderly usually live with children’s family, many older Americans live alone, without the close companionship of their children. This situation is sometimes blamed on the “selfishness” of the younger generation, but a closer look reveals that many of the elderly prefer to maintain their independent lives.
Research on the situation of the elderly in America has shown that while grandparents are delighted to be visited from time to time by their children and grandchildren, they prefer to continue living in the surrounding that they are familiar with. This suggests that children should permit their parents to live alone if they wish to, but should encourage them to maintain close ties to the rest of the family.
Another surprising result of research on the elderly in the United States has been the very positive influence which pets have been found to have on the older that they live with. It has been shown that elderly people who care for small pets, such as cats and dogs, live longer, are healthier, and have better attitudes towards their lives than similar older people without these companions.

A camping trip

One can have much fun in a camping trip. To enjoy such a trip, you should also enjoy primitive living, food cooked outdoor, and lots of exercise. A necessity for your trip is a good tent. It should be light enough to carry, but made of a strong cloth like canvas. At first, you will need time to adjust to the new environment: camping is very different from staying in a luxurious hotel. If you are fleible, you will adjust quickly, and you will find that camping is a good way to relax after a tense city life.

Tips for travellers

No matter what kind of holidays you prefer – sightseeing in a big city, relaxing on a sunny beach, or exploring a new country – following these tips will make your trip easy and joyful.
Make your plans early. If you wait too long, you might not get the reservations or the tickets you want. Also, by planning ahead, you might be able to save money by taking advantage of bargain rates.
Make sure your papers are in order. There are some papers you must take with you. If you are going to another country, you’ll need a passport and, perhaps, a visa. If several countries are in your plans, you might need a visa for each one of them. Arranging these paper can take weeks, so be sure to start in good time.
After you have your tickets, reservations, and official papers, you should collect the other papern you might need, such as an international driver’s licence, insurance information, and your medical records.
Investigate your destination, You’ll enjoy your trip more if you know something about the place you’re visiting. Maps, travel books guidebooks, geography books, and tourist brochures will help you decide the best things to do and see. As you learn about your destination, you’ll be able to decide what to take with you. It’s best to buy needed clothes or equipment a few weeks before you leave. If you get new shoes, wear them for a few days and find out if they’re really comfortable.
Make lists. This will help you remember things. Some useful lists will be:
1. things to do before leaving;
2. things to pack;
3. papers to take;
4. things to do and see.
Get a good night’s sleep. Always try to finish your preparations and packing a day or two before your departure. You don’t want to leave feeling worried and tired. You want to relax and enjoy yourself.

Four seasons of the year

The twelve months of the year are divided into four seasons.
March, April and May are spring months. March is the month when the ground starts to thaw and the snow melts again. At the end of this month you can see many violets and anemones in the forests with some butterflies and bees on them Spring is my mother’s favourite season. She says: “It’s exiting when you wake up and that the nature is different every morning. At first you see only the grey ground, then you see the buds on the trees, some days later everything blossoms and finally you can see that all nature is green.” The weather is changeable. The cold days of winter turn to the chilly days of spring. Usually there are some thunderstorms in April. But during these months farmers begin to work in their farms; they work from the early spring until the late autumn. June, July and April are summer months. The weather is changeable: some days are hot, some – quite cool, some days are dry, during some days it’s pouring with rain. Summer is a time of holiday. Then people go near the water, to the country. If you ask in the street, what the summer is, most of people would answer: “Summer is a period of entertainment!” And it’s the truth. If you’d go to Palanga, Vilnius, Kaunas or some other big town and you can spend your free time very well there.
Autumn begins with September. It’s the month when the colour changes from green to purple or gold. It’s nice to be in the forests in autumn, because they are full of mushrooms, berries and you can see the other face of the nature. Most people don’t like this season because of it’s weather. It’s often dull and foggy, it rains a lot. Autumn is a depressing period. Then farmers harvest the crops. In Lithuania in November the chilly days of autumn soon change to the cold days of winter. The first frosts arrive and roads become icy. The rain turns to sleet and snow, at first turning to slush, but soon settling with severe blizzards and snowdrifts.
Winter starts with December. Winter is a period when everything looks clean when the ground is covered with snow. Children love winter. They like playing ice-hockey, snowballs, making snowmen and waiting for Christmas. The New Year starts with January. January starts with new hopes of many people.
So this is the circle of all the year that happens every twelve months.

Theatre Production. Functions and characteristics of theatre

 

I INTRODUCTION
Theatre Production, the various means by which any of the forms of theatre are presented to a live audience. The term theatre is often applied only to dramatic and musical plays, but it properly includes opera, dance, circus and carnivals, mime, vaudeville, puppet shows, pageants, and other forms—all of which have certain elements in common. They are essentially visual; are experienced directly (although film, videotapes, or recorded sound may be incorporated into a performance); and are governed by sets of rules—such as scripts, scenarios, scores, or choreography—that determine the language and actions of the performers; language, action or atmosphere may be contrived, in order to elicit emotional responses from the audience.
II FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THEATRE
Ever since Aristotle discussed the origin and function of theatre in his famous treatise Poetics (c. 330 BC), the purpose and characteristics of theatre have been widely debated. Over the centuries, theatre has been used—apart from purely artistic expression—for entertainment, religious ritual, moral teaching, political persuasion, and to alter consciousness. It has ranged from realistic storytelling to the presentation of abstract sound and movement. Theatre production involves the use of sets and props, lighting, costumes, and makeup or masks, as well as a space for performance (the stage) and a space for the audience (the auditorium), although these may overlap, especially in later 20th-century productions. Theatre, then, is an amalgamation of art and architecture; literature, music, and dance; and technology. The most rudimentary performances may depend on found space and objects and be the work of a single performer. Most performances, however, require the cooperative efforts of many creative and technically trained people to form, ideally, a harmonious ensemble. See also Drama and Dramatic Arts.
III PRESENTATIONAL AND REPRESENTATIONAL THEATRE
Approaches to the presentation of drama vary from one generation to the next and across cultures, but most can be categorized roughly either as presentational or representational. Most African, Oriental, pre-Renaissance Western, and 20th-century avant-garde theatre is presentational. The stylized approach of presentational theatre makes no attempt to hide its theatricality and often emphasizes it. Thus, the German playwright and theoretician Bertolt Brecht advocated exposing the lighting instruments and stage machinery so that the audience would be reminded constantly that it was viewing a play.
Representational theatre, on the other hand, is illusionistic. Most Western theatre since the Renaissance has been essentially representational: plays have had plausible plots, characters have seemed true to life, scenery has tended towards, or been suggestive of, the realistic.
Most performances do not, of course, fall neatly into one or the other category but may contain elements of each. The plays of the American dramatist Tennessee Williams, for example, are rooted in psychological realism but often employ dream sequences, symbolic characters and objects, and poetic language.
IV TYPES OF MODERN WESTERN THEATRE
Aside from aesthetic intention, Western theatre can also be classified in terms of economics and of approaches to production, categorized as subsidized, commercial, non-commercial—frequently called experimental or art theatre—community, and academic theatre.
A Subsidized Theatre
Subsidized theatre is financially underwritten by a government or by a philanthropic organization. Because of the considerable expense of mounting a theatrical production, the limited audience capacity of most theatres, and, often, the limited appeal of much theatre to the population as a whole, many theatres can only remain financially solvent and mount quality productions with subsidies to supplement box-office income.
Most countries have a designated national theatre company supported by the state. In Great Britain and Germany, most cities or regions have subsidized companies as well. In the former-Communist countries virtually all theatre was state-supported; often this allowed more elaborate design, technology, and experimentation than in Western European and US theatre. There are signs that such funding is no longer so widely available. Until recently, considerable government support was available for the arts in the United States, especially for regional theatres—permanent professional companies located in major cities that often present performers in rotating repertory, such as the Tyrone Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Arena Stage in Washington, D.C. The amount of government support to the American theatre, however, has always been far less than that given to its European counterpart, and it is increasingly dependent on the unpredictable generosity of philanthropic foundations. This situation, largely caused by the very size and diversity of the United States and of its audience, also reflects current government cutbacks. Other important reasons are the lack of a single dominant cultural centre such as London or Paris and the lack of a strong theatrical heritage.
B Commercial Theatre
Commercial theatre appeals to a large audience and is produced with the intention of making a profit. The basis of commercial theatre is entertainment; social relevance and artistic and literary merit are secondary considerations. Commercial theatre is centred in areas such as London’s West End or New York’s Broadway theatre district, and every major city in the world has an equivalent. Before transferring to these venues, many shows are performed in other cities, offering the opportunity to work out difficulties or to test audience response. Equally, a successful show in New York or London may tour other cities.
In 1980 a typical Broadway drama or comedy cost approximately US$500,000 to produce, a musical about US$1 million. Such high initial costs, plus the weekly operating costs (theatre rent, salaries, royalties, publicity, insurance, equipment maintenance, and the like) may cause a show to take several years to pay off its debts and begin to make a profit. Sometimes only the lucrative sale of film rights puts a production in the black. Because of such economics, West End and Broadway producers seldom take risks with unknown playwrights or unusual plays. Although the economics were not so harsh before World War II, commercial theatre has always been inherently conservative and inhospitable to experimentation. See also West End Theatres; Broadway Theatres.
C Non-Commercial Theatre
Attempts to circumvent the economics peculiar to commercial theatre since the end of the 19th century have resulted in the evolution of non-commercial theatre. Known as art theatre in Europe and America before World War I, and later as experimental theatre, it is often identified today in New York as Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway (the latter being a reaction to the increasing commercialism of the former), in England as fringe theatre, and elsewhere by a host of other names. The various goals of such theatre include presenting more serious, literary, politically active, artistic, and avant-garde drama; experimenting with new forms of production, acting, and design; and giving voice to new playwrights, actors, and directors.
Non-commercial theatre tends to operate on limited budgets, to make lack of resources a virtue, and to be unconcerned with profit. It tends to believe strongly in specific ideals and often disavows the apparent slickness associated with commercial theatre. Non-commercial theatre tries to survive on box-office income and donations, but in recent years it has become increasingly dependent on state and private subsidy. Those companies that cannot obtain adequate funding are usually faced with bankruptcy after a short time or else are forced to compromise their ideals to survive. In fact, those that do survive almost become as commercial as the theatre they once rebelled against. This has been a repeating pattern in 20th-century theatre history.
See also Feminist Theatre; Propaganda Theatre.
D Community and Academic Theatre
Community theatre is generally non-professional, consisting of members of a community who practice theatre as an avocation. The repertoire of community theatre tends to be commercial fare, although this may vary. Academic theatre, as the name suggests, is produced by educational institutions, most often colleges and universities. The educational purpose of such theatre results in a repertoire often weighted towards the classical and experimental. Some colleges have technical facilities that surpass those of commercial theatres. Academic theatre is far more active in the United States than elsewhere; with over 5,000 productions a year, it is responsible for more theatre than all other American forms combined.
V THEATRE SPACE
Theatre can also be discussed in terms of the type of space in which it is produced. Stages and auditoriums have had distinctive forms in every era and in different cultures. New theatres today tend to be flexible and eclectic in design, incorporating elements of several styles; they are known as multiple-use or multiple-form theatres.
A performance, however, need not occur in an architectural structure designed as a theatre, or even in a building. The English director Peter Brook talks of creating theatre in an “empty space”. Many earlier forms of theatre were performed in the streets, open spaces, market squares, churches, or rooms or buildings not intended for use as theatres. Much contemporary experimental theatre rejects the formal constraints of available theatres and seeks more unusual spaces. In all these “found” theatres, the sense of stage and auditorium is created by the actions of the performers and the natural features of the space.
Throughout history, however, most theatres have employed one of three types of stage: end, thrust, and arena. An end stage is a raised platform facing the assembled audience. Frequently, it is placed at one end of a rectangular space. The simplest version of the end stage is the booth or trestle stage, a raised stage with a curtained backdrop and perhaps an awning. This was the stage of the Greek and Roman mimes, the mountebanks and wandering entertainers of the Middle Ages, commedia dell’arte, and popular entertainers into the 20th century. It probably formed the basis of Greek tragic theatre and Elizabethan theatre as well. See also Theatre Buildings; Theatre Stage Design.
A The Proscenium Theatre
Since the Renaissance, Western theatre has been dominated by an end stage variant called the proscenium theatre. The proscenium is the wall separating the stage from the auditorium. The proscenium arch, which may take several shapes, is the opening in that wall through which the audience views the performance. A curtain that either rises or opens to the sides may hang in this space. The proscenium developed in response to the desire to mask scenery, hide scene-changing machinery, and create an offstage space for performers’ exits and entrances. The result is to enhance illusion by eliminating all that is not part of the scene and to encourage the audience to imagine that what they cannot see is a continuation of what they can see. Because the proscenium is (or appears to be) an architectural barrier, it creates a sense of distance or separation between the stage and the spectators. The proscenium arch also frames the stage and consequently is often called a peep-show or picture-frame stage. See also Proscenium.
B The Thrust Stage
A thrust stage, sometimes known as three-quarter round, is a platform surrounded on three sides by the audience. This form was used for ancient Greek theatre, Elizabethan theatre, classical Spanish theatre, English Restoration theatre, Japanese and Chinese classical theatre, and much of Western theatre in the 20th century. A thrust may be backed by a wall or be appended to some sort of end stage. The upstage end (back of the stage, farthest from the audience) may have scenery and provision for entrances and exits, but the thrust itself is usually bare except for a few scenic elements and props. Because no barrier exists between performers and spectators, the thrust stage generally creates a sense of greater intimacy, as if the performance were occurring in the midst of the auditorium, while still allowing for illusionistic effects through the use of the upstage end and adjacent offstage space.
C The Arena Stage
The arena stage, or theatre-in-the-round, is a performing space totally surrounded by the auditorium. This arrangement has been used in the 20th century, but its historical precedents are largely in non-dramatic forms such as the circus, and it has limited popularity. The necessity of providing equal sight lines for all spectators puts special constraints on the type of scenery used and on the movements of the actors, because at any given time part of the audience will inevitably be viewing a performer’s back. Illusion is more difficult to sustain in an arena, since in most set-ups, entrances and exits must be made in full view of the audience, eliminating surprise, if nothing else. Nonetheless, the arena, when properly used, can create a sense of intimacy not often possible with other stage arrangements, and, as noted, it is well suited to many non-dramatic forms. Furthermore, because of the different scenic demands of arena theatre, the large backstage areas associated with prosceniums can be eliminated, thus allowing a more economical use of space.
D Variant Forms
One variant form of staging is environmental theatre, which has precedents in medieval and folk theatre and has been widely used in 20th-century avant-garde theatre. It eliminates the single or central stage in favour of surrounding the spectators or sharing the space with them. Stage space and spectator space become indistinguishable. Another popular alternative is the free, or flexible, space, sometimes called black-box theatre because of its most common shape and colour. This is an empty space with movable seating units and stage platforms that can be arranged in any configuration for each performance.
E The Fixed Architectural Stage
Most stages are raw spaces that the designer can mould to create any desired effect or location; in contrast, the architectural stage has permanent features that create a more formal scenic effect. Typically, ramps, stairs, platforms, archways, and pillars are permanently built into the stage space. Variety in individual settings may be achieved by adding scenic elements. The Stratford festival Theatre in Stratford, Ontario, for example, has a permanent “inner stage”—a platform roughly 3.6 m (12 ft) high—jutting on to the multilevel thrust stage from the upstage wall. Most permanent theatres throughout the Renaissance, such as the Teatro Olimpico (1580) in Vicenza, Italy, did not use painted or built scenery but relied on similar permanent architectural features that could provide the necessary scenic elements. Noh and kabuki stages in Japan are other examples.
F Auditoriums
Auditoriums in the 20th century are mostly variants on the fan-shaped auditorium built (1876) by the composer Richard Wagner at his famous opera house in Bayreuth, Germany. These auditoriums are shaped like a hand-held fan and are usually raked (inclined upwards from front to back), with staggered seats to provide unobstructed sight lines. Such auditoriums may be designed with balconies, and some theatres, such as opera houses, have boxes—seats in open or partitioned sections along the sidewalls of the auditorium—a carry-over from Baroque theatre architecture.
VI THE THEATRE STAFF
Regardless of the type or complexity of a production, all theatre performances have similar requirements. For a small, non-commercial production, most of these requirements may be met by two or three people; a West End or Broadway show requires dozens; certain opera companies employ several hundred. The staff may be divided into administrative, creative (or artistic), and technical personnel.
The administrative group includes the producer, box-office and publicity personnel, and front-of-house staff (house manager, ushers, and others responsible for the audience). The artistic staff consists of the director, designers, performers, and, if applicable, playwright, composer, librettist, choreographer, and musical director. Technical personnel include the stage manager, technical director, and various construction and running crews, all working backstage.
A Producer
The producer is responsible for the overall administration—raising and allocating funds, hiring personnel, and overseeing all aspects of production. Large productions may have several producers designated as executive, associate, or co-producers, each of whom may be responsible for a specific aspect of the show. Someone may be listed as a producer by virtue of the amount of money invested. An organization can be a producer, as was the Theatre Guild, a group responsible for some of the most important productions on Broadway from the 1920s to the 1940s. In such arrangements, of course, individual members of the organization still supervise.
For a new commercial production, the producer contracts with a playwright for a script; raises funds from private investors called “angels” (who may invest after seeing a fragment of the play at a special staging known as a backer’s audition); hires the artistic and technical staff; rents a theatre and all the necessary equipment for the stage; and oversees publicity, ticket sales, and all the financial aspects of the production. Box-office operations are handled by a general manager. In theatre companies that do repertory, a season of several plays, the producer may be responsible for selecting the repertoire, although this is often the task of the artistic director. The producer also arranges tours, subsidiary productions, and the sale of subsidiary rights, including film, television, and amateur production rights. Most theatres also have a theatre or house manager, responsible for theatre maintenance and audience control.
B Director
The director makes all artistic or creative decisions and is responsible for the harmonious unity of a production. The director, usually in conjunction with the designers (and perhaps the producer), determines a concept, motif, or interpretation for the script or scenario; selects a cast, rehearses them; and usually has a deciding role in scenery, costumes, lights, and sound. Movement, timing, pacing, and visual and aural effects are all determined by the director; what the audience finally sees is the director’s vision. From the time of the ancient Greeks until the 17th century this role was generally fulfilled by the playwright, and from the 17th to the end of the 19th century directing was the function of the leading actor of a company. Under such conditions, however, ensemble performance was rare.
The concept of the modern director can be traced to the 18th-century English actor-manager David Garrick, although George II, duke of the German principality of Saxe-Meiningen, is generally referred to as the first director; touring Europe with his theatre company in the 1870s and 1880s, he exercised absolute control over all aspects of production. In the 20th century there has been a recurring tendency for directors to use a script simply as a starting point for their own theatrical visions, resulting in unorthodox and frequently spectacular productions often called “theatricalist”. Such productions often achieve clarification or emphasis of themes or images in the text, or a new relevance for classic scripts, sometimes—admittedly—at the expense of the integrity of the original. Some notable directors of this type were Vsevolod Meyerhold, Max Reinhardt, Jean-Louis Barrault, and, more recently, Peter Brook, Peter Stein, and Tom O’Horgan.
The director usually selects the cast through auditions in which performers read sections of the script to be produced, present prepared scenes or speeches, or, when appropriate, sing and dance. The director of a musical production is aided in the auditioning process by the musical director and the choreographer. Although auditioning is acknowledged to be a flawed method, it does allow the director to judge the talents and qualities of potential performers. Actors may also be employed on the basis of reputation, recommendation of agents, or simply for physical appropriateness.
C Performers
Acting implies impersonation, and most plays require the creation of complex characters with distinct physical and psychological attributes. In the broadest sense, however, a performer is someone who does something for an audience; thus, performing may range from executing simple tasks to displaying skill without impersonation, to believably re-creating historical or fictional characters, to exercising the virtuoso techniques of dancers and singers.
The director and cast of modern productions generally rehearse from two to six weeks, although certain European subsidized theatres have the luxury of several months’ rehearsal time, and certain types of Asian theatre require several years of formal training (the bunraku puppet theatre of Japan and the kathakali dance theatre of India are notable examples). During rehearsals, blocking (the movement of the performers) is set, lines are learned, interpretations are determined, and performances are polished. If a new play is being rehearsed, the playwright is usually present to change lines and to rearrange, add, or delete scenes as necessary. In the case of musicals, songs and dances may be added or dropped; the choreographer rehearses the dancers, and the musical director rehearses the singers.
Most professional actors belong to Actors’ Equity Association, a trade union, or some equivalent organization. The union determines salaries, length of rehearsals, number of performances per week (normally eight), working conditions, and benefits. Although acting is often thought to be a lucrative profession, it is so for only a very few—the stars. Base salaries for actors and dancers are lower than in most other trade professions. Moreover, theatre does not provide steady employment or job security. Of the thousands of Equity members, at least 85 per cent are unemployed at any one time.
D Set Design
In Europe, one person, frequently called a scenographer, designs sets, costumes, and lights; in the United States these functions are usually handled by three separate professionals. Set design is the arrangement of theatrical space; the set, or setting, is the visual environment in which a play is performed. Its purpose is to suggest time and place and to create the proper mood or atmosphere. Settings can generally be classified as realistic, abstract, suggestive, or functional.
D1 Realistic
A realistic setting tries to re-create a specific location. During the height of Naturalism at the end of the 19th century, directors strove for total verisimilitude, leading to such practices as purchasing real meat to hang in a butcher’s shop scene or transferring a complete restaurant on to a stage. The insistence on realistic sunset effects and the like by American producer-director David Belasco led to significant improvements in lighting design and equipment early in the 20th century. But naturalism is also illusionism; such settings are designed to fool the audience. Walls of a stage set are usually not made of wood or plasterboard, as they would be in a real house, but are constructed from flats—panels of canvas stretched on wooden frames—supported from behind by stage braces. Flats are lightweight and thus easy to move and store, and they are reusable. Trees and rocks may be constructed from papier-mâché; elaborate mouldings are made from plastic; wallpaper, shadows, and inlaid woodwork are more often painted than real; false perspective may be painted or built into the set. The stage floor may be raked—inclined upwards from the front of the stage (downstage) to the back (upstage)—and furniture appropriately adjusted to compensate for audience sight lines or the normal effects of perspective. The result is the illusion of a room, or park, or forest, but the reality may be a carefully distorted conglomeration of canvas, glue, and paint.
From the Renaissance to the mid-19th century, realistic settings generally consisted of a painted backdrop and wings—flats placed parallel to the front of the stage to help mask the offstage space, and often painted to enhance the scenic illusion. Some furniture or free-standing set pieces were sometimes placed on the stage, but generally it was an empty space for the actors. The settings were “stock”, consisting of an interior set, an exterior set, and variants that sufficed for all performances. Most interior scenes since the early 19th century have utilized a box set—a room from which the fourth wall (the one nearest the audience) has supposedly been removed, leaving a room with three walls, a ceiling, and three-dimensional furniture and decor. Such an arrangement posits the spectator as voyeur. In actuality, the setting is once again illusionistic; the arrangement of furniture and the positions and movements of actors are designed for audience convenience.
Even in the most realistically detailed setting, the designer still controls much of the setting’s effect through choice of colours, arrangement of props and set pieces (is the room sparsely furnished or cluttered, spacious or claustrophobic?), and placement of entrances. All this has a profound, albeit subtle, effect on the audience.
D2 Abstract
The abstract setting, most popular in the early 20th century, was influenced largely by the Swiss designer Adolphe Appia and the English designer Edward Gordon Craig. The theories of these two men have influenced not only design in general but much contemporary theatre. An abstract set does not depict any specific time or place. It most often consists of platforms, steps, drapes, panels, ramps, or other non-specific elements. Most common in modern dance, abstract settings work best in productions in which time and place are unspecified or irrelevant, or in which the director and designer want to create a sense of timelessness and universality. This is common, for instance, in Shakespearean productions, in which locale may alter rapidly, is frequently not indicated by the script, and may be suggested adequately by a few props and by the poetry itself. Abstract settings place more emphasis on the language and the performer and stimulate the spectator’s imagination. Costuming thus becomes more significant, and lighting takes on great importance.
D3 Suggestive
Most settings in today’s commercial theatre are suggestive, descended from the so-called new stagecraft of the first half of the 20th century. Sometimes called simplified realism, its scenic effect is achieved by eliminating non-essential elements—an approach championed by the American designer Robert Edmond Jones—or by providing fragments of a realistic setting, perhaps in combination with abstract elements, such as a window frame suspended in front of black drapes. Universality and imagination are encouraged through the lack of detail; yet some specificity of time, place, and mood is achieved. Such sets may appear dream-like, fragmentary, stark, or surrealistic.
D4 Functional
Functional settings are derived from the requirements of the particular theatrical form. Although they are rarely used in dramatic presentations, they are essential to certain kinds of performance. An excellent example is the circus, the basic scenic elements of which are determined by the needs of the performers.
E Stage Facilities
The use and movement of scenery are determined by stage facilities. Relatively standard elements include trapdoors in the stage floor, lifts that can raise or lower stage sections, wagons (rolling platforms) on which scenes may be mounted, and cycloramas—curved canvas or plaster backdrops used as a projection surface or to simulate the sky. Above the stage, especially in a proscenium theatre, is the area known as the fly gallery, where lines for flying—that is, raising—unused scenery from the stage are manipulated, and which contains counterweight or hydraulic pipes and lengths of wood, or battens, from which lights and pieces of scenery may be suspended. Other special devices and units can be built as necessary. Although scene painting seems to be a dying art, modern scene shops are well equipped to work with plastics, metals, synthetic fabrics, paper, and other new and industrial products that until recently were not in the realm of theatre. See also Stage Design.
F Lighting Design
Lighting design, a more ephemeral art, has two functions: to illuminate the stage and the performers and to create mood and control the focus of the spectators. Theatre lighting may be from a direct source such as the Sun or a lamp, or it may be indirect, employing reflected light or general illumination. It has four controllable properties: intensity, colour, placement on the stage, and movement—the visible changing of the first three properties. These properties are used to achieve visibility, mood, composition (the overall arrangement of light, shadow, and colour), and the revelation of form—the appearance of shape and dimensionality of a performer or object as determined by light.
Until the Renaissance, almost all performance was outdoors and therefore lit by the sun, but with indoor performance came the need for lighting instruments. Lighting was first achieved with candles and oil lamps and, in the 19th century, with gas lamps. Although coloured filters, reflectors, and mechanical dimming devices were used for effects, lighting served primarily to illuminate the stage. By current standards the stage was fairly dim, which allowed greater illusionism in scenic painting. Gas lighting facilitated greater control, but only the advent of electric lighting in the late 19th century permitted the brightness and control presently available. It also allowed the dimming of the house-lights, plunging the auditorium into darkness for the first time.
Lighting design, however, is not simply aiming the lighting instruments at the stage or bathing the stage in a general wash of light. Audiences usually expect actors to be easily visible at all times and to appear to be three-dimensional. This involves the proper angling of instruments, provision of back and side lighting as well as frontal, and a proper balance of colours. Two basic types of stage-lighting instruments are employed: floodlights, which illuminate a broad area, and spotlights, which focus light more intensely on a smaller area. Instruments consist of a light source and a series of lenses and shutters in some sort of housing. These generally have a power of 500 to 5,000 watts. The instruments are hung from battens and stanchions in front of, over, and at the sides of the stage. In realistic settings, lights may be focused to simulate the direction of the ostensible source, but even in these instances, performers would appear two-dimensional without back and side lighting.
Because so-called white light is normally too harsh for most theatre purposes, coloured filters called gels are used to soften the light and create a more pleasing effect. White light can be simulated by mixing red, blue, and green light. Most designers attempt to balance “warm” and “cool” colours to create proper shadows and textures. Except for special effects, lighting design generally strives to be unobtrusive; just as in set design, however, the skilful use of colour, intensity, and distribution can have a subliminal effect on the spectators’ perceptions.
The lighting designer is often responsible for projections. These include still or moving images that substitute for or enhance painted and constructed scenery, create special effects such as stars or moonlight, or provide written legends for the identification of scenes. Images can be projected from the audience side of the stage on to opaque surfaces, or from the rear of the stage on to specially designed rear-projection screens. Similar projections are often used on scrims, semi-transparent curtains stretched across the stage. film and still projection, sometimes referred to as mixed media, was first used extensively by the German director Erwin Piscator in the 1920s and became very popular in the 1960s.
The lights are controlled by a skilled technician called the electrician, who operates a control or dimmer board, so called because a series of controls the intensity of each instrument or group of instruments. The most recent development in lighting technology is the memory board, a computerized control system that stores the information of each light cue or change of lights. The electrician need no longer operate each dimmer individually; by pushing one button, all the lights will change automatically to the pre-programmed intensity and at the desired speed.
G Costume Design
A costume is whatever is worn on the performer’s body. Costume designers are concerned primarily with clothing and accessories, but are also often responsible for wigs, masks, and makeup. Costumes convey information about the character and aid in setting the tone or mood of the production. Because most acting involves impersonation, most costuming is actual or re-created historical or contemporary dress; as with scenery, however, costumes may also be suggestive or abstract. Until the 19th century, little attention was paid to period or regional accuracy; variations on contemporary dress sufficed. Since then, however, costume designers have paid great attention to authentic period style.
As with the other forms of design, subtle effects can be achieved through choice of colour, fabric, cut, texture, and weight or material. Because costume can indicate such things as social class and personality traits, and can even simulate such physical attributes as obesity or a deformity, an actor’s work can be significantly eased by its skilful design. Costume can also function as character signature, notably for such comic characters as Harlequin or the other characters of the commedia dell’arte, Charlie Chaplin’s Little Tramp, or circus clowns.
In much Oriental theatre, as in classical Greek theatre, costume elements are formalized. Based originally on everyday dress, the costumes became standardized and were appropriated for the stage. Colours, designs, and ornamentation all convey meaningful information.
H Mask
A special element of costume is the mask. Although rarely used in contemporary Western theatre, masks were essential in Greek and Roman drama and the commedia dell’arte and are used in most African and Oriental theatre. The masks of tragedy and of comedy, as used in ancient Greek drama, are in fact the universal symbols of the theatre. Masks obviate the use of the face for expression and communication and thus render the performer more puppet-like; expression depends solely on voice and gesture. Because the mask’s expression is unchanging, the character’s fate or final expression is known from the beginning, thereby removing one aspect of suspense. The mask shifts focus from the actor to the character and can thus clarify aspects of theme and plot and give a character a greater universality. Like costumes, the colours and features of the mask, especially in the Orient, indicate symbolically significant aspects of the character. In large theatres masks can also aid in visibility.
H1 Makeup
Makeup may also function as a mask, especially in Oriental theatre, where faces may be painted with elaborate colours and images that exaggerate and distort facial features. In Western theatre, makeup is used for two purposes: to emphasize and reinforce facial features that might otherwise be lost under bright lights or at a distance and to alter signs of age, skin tone, or nose shape.
I Technical Production
The technical aspects of production may be divided into pre-production and run of production. Pre-production technical work is supervised by the technical director in conjunction with the designers. Sets, properties (props), and costumes are made during this phase by crews in the theatre shops or, in the case of most commercial theatre, in professional studios.
Props are the objects handled by actors or used in dressing the stage—all objects placed or carried on the set that are not costumes or scenery. Whereas real furniture and hand props can be used in many productions, props for period shows, non-realistic productions, and theatrical shows such as circuses must be built. Like sets, props can be illusionistic—they may be created from papier-mâché or plastic for lightness, exaggerated in size, irregularly shaped, or designed to appear level on a raked stage; they may also be capable of being rolled, collapsed, or folded. The person in charge of props is called the props master or mistress.
J Sound and Sound Effects
Sound, if required, is now generally recorded during the pre-production period. From earliest times, most theatrical performances were accompanied by music that, until recently, was produced by live musicians. Since the 1930s, however, use of recorded sound has been a possibility in the theatre. Although music is still the most common sound effect, wind, rain, thunder, and animal noises have been essential since the earliest Greek tragedies. Any sound that cannot be created by a performer may be considered a sound effect. Such sounds are most often used for realistic effect (for example, a train rushing by or city sounds outside a window), but they can also assist in the creation of mood or rhythm. Although many sounds can be recorded from actual sources, certain sounds do not record well and seem false when played through electronic equipment on a stage. Elaborate mechanical devices are therefore constructed to simulate these sounds, such as rain or thunder.
Technicians also create special aural and visual effects simulating explosions, fire, lightning, and apparitions and giving the illusion of moving objects or of flying. See also Acoustics (theatre).
K Stage Management
The stage manager serves as a liaison among the technical personnel and between them and the creative staff, oversees rehearsals, coordinates all aspects of production, and runs the show in performance. The stage manager “calls” the show—signals all technicians when to take their cues—and supervises the actors during the production.
The running crew is determined by the needs of the production. It may consist of the following: scene crews, or grips, who shift the scenery; prop crews; wardrobe crews, who assist the performers with their costumes and maintain the costumes between performances; sound technicians; electricians; and flymen, who operate all flying scenery. In commercial theatre, all technicians belong to the stagehands union.
When the scenery is built, it is “loaded in” and set up. Lights are hung, focused, and gelled—given coloured filters. Technical rehearsals are then held, during which light, sound, and scene, and scene-shift cues are set and rehearsed—first with the crews alone, then with actors. Finally, in dress rehearsals, the show is rehearsed with all elements except the presence of an audience. When a show closes, the set is “struck” and “loaded out”.

Olympic Games

 

The Olympic Games is the world’s number one sports event. For athletes they mean a chance to win gold and glory. For all people they are a symbol of peace, hope, friendly cooperation between nations, fairness, high moral and physical standards.
The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games.
There have been two Olympic Games eras – ancient and modern.
Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was fascinated by the Ancient Olympics brought the classical games back to life. He organized an international conference in Paris. During this conference the international Olympic Committee was set up.
The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896. The Greeks built a new stadium. 295 athletes from 13 countries took part. There were nine sports represented: cycling, tennis, gymnastics, swimming, athletics, weightlifting, rowing, wrestling and shooting.
Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centre. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Game.
And in conclusion I want to say that a lot of people are fans of the Olympics because they make them feel optimistic. The Games represent a positive symbol in a negative world.

English topic – Smoking

 

It’s said, that 70% of young people smoke or have tried smoking. Well I think that smoking is a bad thing. It’s dangerous to us and to others. Smoking causes cancer, various diseases of lungs, throat. Doctors inform us about it, but smokers don’t pay attention to it. Young people usually like imitating the adults. For this reason parents must no smoke themselves. Smoking is like illnesses, once try and you can’t stop. Smoking helps people to relax and they enjoy it. But to give up is very difficult, and some people can’t do this without others help.
I think, that many smokers are selfish, because there are many places where is “no smoking” sign, but a lot of people ignore them. They do harm not only for their health, but for non-smoker’s health too. The person not only poisons itself, but he pollutes the environment also. So it’s better not to begin smoking at all. The life of all people will be healthier, especially of the young people

English topic – Health

 

Health is the most important thing in a person’s life. Every person should think more about his health because when health is lost everything is lost. Good health is better than the best medicine. And if your health is good you are always in a good mood. We should go to sport, eat various foods, be in the fresh air, and do exercises.
Sport is very important in our life. It is a way leading you to the healthy life. There are many kinds of sport. You can do exercises at home or in sport club .If you like biking you can visit a lot of places, listen to the sound of nature and enjoy the fresh air.
So if you really want to be healthy you should eat well-balanced meal, need extra vitamins, give up smoking and drinking.
It is said that about seventy interest young people smoke or have tread smoking. There are a lot of illnesses, which are caused by smoking. In our days the children begin to smoke in primary forms. So it has a very big negative effect their learning. I think it happens so that the parents don’t control their children they do not interest where the children put money which they give for lunch or dinner at school. Then children ask those adults to buy cigarettes to them, as the shop assistants have no right to sell for children. But I think all people must think what they do and if you want to be healthy you mustn’t smoke, use drugs and alcohol.

Providing solution to problem: stress before examination

 

Essay: providing solution to problem

Many students suffer from psychological stress these days as
pressure to pass the exams has grown vastly. Fortunately, there are a
number of possible solutions which could help pupils to get rid of stress
and tension.
First of all, students should find some free time to rest and have
some relaxation. To pass exams they need to be full of mental energy and
resolution because all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
Secondly, students should know what career they are willing to
choose during their last grade and pay attention to things that are
required to study that kind of speciality. That would definitely make the
studies more efficient and save precious time as well.

What is more, hiring a private teacher would be very useful. Working
with a teacher individually will increase student’s knowledge and make him
more confident on himself before the final examination. Also, private
teacher might consult the pupil what career should he choose as he can
shape his abilities and give an advice.
Finally, student should keep his lifestyle as healthy as possible.
Having proper eating habits, some physical exercises, not using any stuff
that is detrimental to student’s health will keep him fit, healthy and full
of positive energy before the examination.
In conclusion, there are many solutions to the problem of stress
before examination but if you follow these advices you will definitely be
able to deal with all the tension you face.

Cannes France. The Cannes Film Festival

 

Cannes France

Cannes France, is one of the best-known cities of the French Riviera, a busy tourist destination and host of the annual Cannes Film Festival. The population was 70,400 as of the 2007 census. Cannes is the home of numerous gated communities. The city is also famous for its various luxury shops, restaurants, and hotels.

Cannes: the name

In the 10th century the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from “canna”, a reed. Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands. Most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins islands and the history of Cannes is the history of the islands.

Modern times

With the 20th century came new luxury hotels such as the Miramar and the Martinez. The city was modernised with a sports centre, street cars, a post office, and schools. There were fewer British and German tourists after the First World War but more Americans. Winter tourism gave way to summer tourism and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructed.

The city council had the idea of an international film festival shortly before World War II. The first opened on 20 September 1946, held in the Casino Municipal.

Cityscape

La Croisette is the waterfront avenue with palm trees. La Croisette is known for picturesque beaches and for restaurants, cafés and boutiques. La Suquet, the old town, provides a good view of La Croisette. The fortified tower and Chapel of St Anne house the Musée de la Castre. The Man in the Iron Mask was imprisoned on the Île Sainte-Marguerite.

Île Sainte-Marguerite (St Marguerite Island)

It took “The Man in the Iron Mask” 11 years to leave this tiny, forested island. The mysterious individual was believed to be of noble blood, but his identity has never been proven. His cell can be visited in the Fort of St Marguerite, now renamed the Musée de la Mer (Museum of the Sea). This museum also houses discoveries from shipwrecks off the island, including Roman (first century BC) and Saracen (10th century AD) ceramics.

Climate

The Côte d’Azur has a Mediterranean climate, with sunny, hot, dry summers and mild winters. Winter temperatures are moderated by the Mediterranean; days of frost are rare, and in summer the maximum rarely exceeds 30º.[20] Micro-climates exist in these coastal regions, and there can be great differences in the weather between various locations. Strong winds such as the Mistral, a cold dry wind from the northwest or from the east, are another characteristic, particularly in the winter.
Nice and the Alpes-Maritimes

Nice and the Alpes-Maritimes département are sheltered by the Alps, and are the most protected part of the Mediterranean coast. The winds are usually gentle, from the sea to the land, though sometimes the Mistral blows strongly from the north-west, or, turned by the mountains, from the east. In 1956 a Mistral from the north-west reached 180kmh at Nice airport. Sometimes, in summer, the Sirocco brings high temperatures and reddish desert sand from Africa. (See Winds of Provence.)

Rain is rare but can be torrential, particularly in September when storms and rain are caused by the difference between the colder air inland and the warm Mediterranean water temperature (20°C-24°C). The average annual rainfall in Nice is 767mm, more than in Paris, though it rains an average of just 63 days a year.

Snow is rare, falling once every ten years. 1956 was exceptional, when 20 cm blanketed the coast. In January 1985 the coast between Cannes and Menton received 30 to 40 cm. In the mountains, snow is present from November to May.

Nice has an average of 2694 hours of sunshine, about 61% of the annual possible sunshine. The average maximum daily temperature in Nice in August is 28°C, while the average minimum daily temperature in January is 6°C.

French Riviera

The Côte d’Azur, often known in English as the French Riviera, is the Mediterranean coastline of the south eastern corner of France, extending from Menton near the Italian border in the east to either Hyères or Cassis in the west.

This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas. It began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. With the arrival of the railway in the mid-19th century, it became the playground and vacation spot of British, Russian, and other aristocrats, such as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, when he was Prince of Wales. In the first half of the 20th century it was frequented by artists and writers, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Edith Wharton, Somerset Maugham and Aldous Huxley, as well as wealthy Americans and Europeans. After World War II it became a popular tourist destination and convention site. Many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region. Officially, the Côte d’Azur is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents, although estimates of the number of non-French nationals living in the area are often much higher.

Its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060 (2006). The city is the center of a communauté urbaine – Nice-Côte d’Azur – bringing together 24 communes and over 500,000 inhabitants.

Nice is home to Nice Côte d’Azur Airport, France’s second-busiest airport (after Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport), which is on an area of partially reclaimed coastal land at the western end of the Promenade des Anglais. A second airport at Mandelieu was once the region’s commercial airport, but is now mainly used by private and business aircraft. The A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road generally known as the Route nationale 7. Trains serve the coastal region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in six hours from Paris.

The French Riviera also contains the seaside resorts of Cannes, Antibes, Juan-les-Pins, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, Cap-d’Ail, Fréjus, Saint-Raphaël, and Saint-Tropez, and surrounds the principality of Monaco, with a total population of over two million. It is also home to a high-tech/science park or technopole at Sophia-Antipolis and a research and technology center at the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis – the region has 35,000 students, of whom 25% are working towards a doctorate.

The French Riviera is a major yachting centre, with marinas along its coast. According to the Côte d’Azur Economic Development Agency, each year the Riviera hosts 50% of the world’s superyacht fleet, with 90% of all superyachts visiting the region’s coast at least once in their lifetime.

As a tourist centre it benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year, 115 km of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants.

Places

Places on the Côte d’Azur (following the broadest definition), following the coast from south-west to north-east, include:
• Cassis
• La Ciotat
• Bandol
• Sanary-sur-Mer
• Six-Fours-les-Plages
• Toulon
• Hyères and the Îles d’Hyères (Porquerolles, Port-Cros and Île du Levant)
• Le Lavandou
• Cavalaire-sur-Mer
• Saint-Tropez
• Inland – Grimaud, with Port-Grimaud on the coast
• Sainte-Maxime
• Fréjus and Saint-Raphaël
• Inland – Fayence
• Théoule-sur-Mer
• Mandelieu and La Napoule
• Inland – Grasse
• Inland – Mougins
• the Îles de Lérins – Île Sainte-Marguerite and Île Saint-Honorat
• Cannes
• Inland – Vallauris
• Inland – Valbonne
• Inland – Sophia-Antipolis
• Golfe-Juan
• Juan-les-Pins
• Antibes
• Inland – Biot
• Villeneuve-Loubet
• Cagnes-sur-Mer
• Inland – Vence
• Inland – Saint-Paul-de-Vence
• Inland – Saint-Jeannet
• Saint-Laurent-du-Var
• Nice
• Villefranche-sur-Mer
• Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat
• Beaulieu-sur-Mer
• Èze
• Cap d’Ail
• Monaco (including Monte-Carlo)
• Beausoleil
• Roquebrune-Cap-Martin
• Menton

Museums

The Musée d’Art et d’Histoire de Provence houses artifacts from prehistoric to present, in an 18th century mansion. The Musée de la Castre has objects from the Pacific Atolls, Peruvian relics and Mayan pottery. Other venues include the Musée de la Marine, Musée de la Mer, Musée de la Photographie and Musée International de la Parfumerie

Painters

Paul Signac, The Port of Saint-Tropez, oil on canvas, 1901.

The climate and vivid colours of the Mediterranean attracted many famous artists during the 19th and 20th centuries. They included:

• Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947); retired to and died at Le Cannet.
• Georges Braque (1882-1963); painted frequently at L’Estaque between 1907 and 1910.
• Roger Broders (1883-1953); Parisian travel poster illustrator.
• Paul Cézanne (1839-1906); a native of Aix-en-Provence, Cézanne painted at L’Estaque between 1878 and 1882.
• Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910); discovered the Côte d’Azur in 1883, and painted at Monaco and Hyères.
• Maurice Denis (1870-1943); painted at St. Tropez and Bandol.
• André Derain (1880-1954); painted at L’Estaque and Martigues.
• Raoul Dufy (1877-1953); whose wife was from Nice, painted in the region, including in Nice, Marseille and Martigues.
• Albert Marquet (1873-1947); painted at Marseille, St. Tropez and L’Estaque.
• Henri Matisse (1869-1954); first visited St. Tropez in 1904. In 1917 he settled in Nice, first at the Hôtel Beau Rivage, then at the Hôtel de la Méditerranée, then at la Villa des Alliés in Cimiez. In 1921 he lived in an apartment in Nice, next to the flower market and overlooking the sea, where he lived until 1938. He then moved to the Hôtel Régina in the hills of Cimiez, above Nice. During World War II he lived in Vence, then returned to Cimiez, where he died and is buried.
• Claude Monet (1840-1927); visited Menton, Bordighera, Juan-les-Pins, Monte Carlo, Nice, Cannes, Beaulieu and Villefranche, and painted a number of seascapes of Cap Martin, near Menton, and at Cap d’Antibes.
• Edvard Munch (1863-1944); visited and painted in Nice and Monte Carlo (where he developed a passion for gambling), and rented a villa at Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat in 1891.
• Pablo Picasso (1881-1973); spent each summer from 1919 to 1939 on the Côte d’Azur, and moved there permanently in 1946, first at Vallauris, then at Mougins, where he spent his last years.
• Auguste Renoir (1841-1919); visited Beaulieu, Grasse, Saint-Raphaël and Cannes, before finally settling in Cagnes-sur-Mer in 1907, where he bought a farm in the hills and built a new house and workshop on the grounds. He continued to paint there until his death in 1919. His house is now a museum.
• Paul Signac (1863-1935);

visited St. Tropez in 1892, and bought a villa, La Hune, at the foot of citadel in 1897. It was at his villa that his friend, Henri Matisse, painted his famous Luxe, Calme et Volupté in 1904. Signac made numerous paintings along the coast.

Economy

The Cannes Mandelieu Space Center

The area around Cannes has developed into a high-tech cluster. The technopolis of Sophia Antipolis lies in the hills beyond Cannes. The Film Festival is a major event for the industry. There is an annual television festival in the last week in September.

Festivals and show events

• The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival international du film de Cannes or simply le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is held annually, usually in May.
• Midem, the foremost trade show for the music industry
• Mipim, the worlds largest property-related trade show
• Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival
• Carnival on the Riviera is an annual parade through the streets to mark the 21-day period prior to Shrove Tuesday.
• The International Festival of Games is festival of bridge, belote, backgammon, chess, draughts, tarot and more (February).
• Festival de la Plaisance is an event for boating enthusiasts in the Vieux Port (September).
• The International Actors’ Performance Festival: comedy sketches and performances by fringe artists
• The International Luxury Travel Market brings together under one roof the top international luxury travel providers and suppliers from all around the world.(http://www.iltm.net)
• Le Festival d’Art Pyrotechnique is a magnificent annual fireworks competition held in the summer at the Bay of Cannes.
• Mipcom and MIPTV, held in October and April respectively, the world’s most important trade markets for the television industry.
• The Pan-African Film Festival, held in early April and featuring films from the African diaspora

Film Festival

The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1946, is one of the world’s oldest and most prestigious film festivals. The private festival is held annually (usually in May) at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, in the resort town of Cannes, in the south of France.

History
At the end of the 1930s, shocked by the interference of the fascist governments of Italy and Germany n the selection of films for the Mostra del cinema di Venezia, Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, decided to create an international cinematographic festival in France, on the proposal of Philippe Erlanger and the support of the British and Americans. Many towns were proposed as candidates, as Vichy, Biarritz or Algiers, although finally Cannes was the chosen one; thus, Le Festival International de Cannes was born.
In June 1939, Louis Lumière agreed to be the president of the first festival, set to be held from 1 to 30 September 1939. The German attack on Poland on 1 September 1939, followed by the declaration of war against Germany by France and the United Kingdom on 3 September, ended the first edition of the festival before it started.
The festival was relaunched after World War II in 1946, in the old Casino of Cannes, financed by the French Foreign Affairs Ministry and the City of Cannes. Although the initial spirit of the French festival was to compete with its Italian counterpart, a secret agreement took place between both nations, so that they will celebrate their international festivals in alternating years. The first Cannes Festival had a considerable success, so when the Franco-Italian agreement was made public it was heavily criticised and considered as a “capitulation of France”.
The next year, in 1947, the festival was held again as the Festival du film de Cannes, dropping the international nature, but only in name, as films from sixteen countries were presented. Moreover, the principle of equality was introduced, so that the jury was to be made up only of one representative per country. Also, this year the festival was held at the made-for-the-occasion Palais des Festivals, although the roof was unfinished and blew off during a storm.
The festival was not held either in 1948 or 1950 on account of budgetary problems, offering no competition to the Venetian festival those years. In 1951, owing to better relations between France and Italy, the Cannes Festival was moved to Spring, while the Mostra remained in Autumn.
In 1955 the Golden Palm was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival which had been given until that year. In 1959 the Marché du Film (Film Market) was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce.
In 1962 the International Critics’ Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 an hommage was paid to Jean Cocteau after his death, and he was named Honorary President for life. The next year, Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the festival.
The 1968 festival was halted on 19 May 1968. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Milos Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May, filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, and in protest to the eviction of the then President of the Cinémathèque Française. The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, and they founded the Film Directors’ Society (SRF) that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors’ Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films.

The “Palais des Festivals” in which the festival takes place

During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972 Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, and Maurice Bessy the Managing Director. He immediately introduced an important change in the selection of the participating films. Until that date, the different countries chose which films would represent them in the festival. Bessy created one committee to select French films, and another for foreign films. In 1978 Gilles Jacob assumed the President position, introducing the Caméra d’Or award and the Un Certain Regard section. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, reducing the number of selected films thus; also, until that point the Jury was composed by Film Academics, and Jacob started to introduce celebrities and professionals from the film industry.

Tornadoes – the most violent of all atmospheric phenomena

 

Tornadoes are an excellent example of an intense, rapid-onset small-scale hazard of short duration. Because windspeeds of up to 500 km h-1 can develop just above the base of the narrow column of helically rising air of the tornado, they are the most violent of all atmospheric phenomena. In the most extreme cases, swathes up to 8 km in width and 350km in length have been laid waste by tornadoes with a forward motion (translatory velocity) of up 110 km h-1. more typically, a tornado will have winds of 150- 200km h-1, create a damage track 50- 100m wide and will travel 2-5 km with a translatory velocity of 30-60 km h-1.

The high damage potential of this hazard is a consequence of the high wind velocities directly affecting structures, objects being entrained in the circulation and then ejected, the intense windshear and the extremely low central pressure(perhaps up to some 200mb lower than the surrounding air). It was once believed that this great pressure deficit would cause a building to explode if a tornado moved directly over it, as the air inside- still at atmospheric pressure- would blow out the walls in an attempt to equalize with the external low pressure of the tornado core, but it is now accepted that much of the damage will have already been done by flying objects and the high winds, before the core arrives. Furthermore, any such explosive effects are likely to have been created by an overpressure- by the hydraulic ramming of air through open/broken windows and doors which is capable of blowing buildings apart.

The global distribution of tornadoes is extremely difficult- it not impossible- to map with accuracy, as most counties do not specifically document their occurrence. In fact, good quality data exist only for UK and the USA, and even then differing documentation procedures are used. However, it is known that tornadoes are characteristic of areas where warm and cold air masses of particularly contrasting natures clash often, namely the mid- latitudes- and tornado reports are most frequent from north- western Europe and the Mid-Western plains of the USA. In global terms, the majority of tornadoes occur in Europe, North America, Australasia, India, Bangladesh, China and Japan. They are uncommon in equatorial regions, and are virtually unheard of in the Artic and Antarctic.

With a poor understanding of the global distribution, it is very difficult to assess the changing significance of the tornado hazard. However, two questions can be addressed: (1) is the frequency of tornado occurrence changing, and (2) are anthropogenic changes altering the potential for tornadic damage?

Statistic from both the UK and the USA clearly show that the number of reported tornadoes is increasing- in the UK, for instance, from 1950 to 1964 only 1954 and 1961 saw yearly totals reach double figures, while since 1965, only 1969 and 1992 failed to reach double figures. There is strong evidence that this is purely reflecting improved monitoring, reporting and data collection, as a breakdown of the American statistics into weak, strong and violent tornadoes shown that more than 77 percent of the average annual increase is accounted for by weak tornadoes, while the reported number of violent events is increasing by only 0.004 per cent per year. The devastation that violent tornadoes (typically long-track and duration) bring is unlikely to go unreported, while weak tornadoes (typically short-track and duration) which were most likely to have been missed in the past are now being reported more frequently.

With many hazards, it is possible at least modify the hazard or even affect the cause, in order to ameliorate its effects. However, as nothing short of a nuclear explosion will affect or modify the tornado hazard, it is essential that efforts be directed to modifying loss potential through adjustments.

In the USA alone the average number of death per year is about 100 and several tornadoes have each caused over/ 100 million of property damage. One response has been the establishment of the government- funded National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in Kansas City, Missouri, to predict the likely conditions for the development of tornadoes and severe local storms, using ground and upper air abservations, satellites and both Dopper and Rainfall radar systems. A tornado watch is issued and remains valid for as long as atmospheric conditions are conducive to tornado formation. When a tornado is suspected or detected, whether by eye- witness reports, chase teams, Doppler radar and/or by monitoring powerline breaks, a tornado warning is then issued by the local office of the National Weather Service (NWS) to alert the public and emergency services. Warnings are broadcast via television and radio, and when a tornado is imminent, civil defence sirens are used, if available to warn the public to seek shelter immediately- usually in the interior of a dwelling, or better still in a basement, cellar or a purpose- built ‘tornado shelter’. These forecast and detection systems have contributed to a significant decline in total death in the USA from these storms, despite population increase in the affected areas.

English topic – Education in GB and Lithuania

Education is compulsory in our country. Children start school at the age of seven. They can stay at school for twelve years but some of them leave school at the end of the ninth form. These pupils usually go to vocation or trade schools where they can get both secondary education and the qualification. Education in Great Britain is compulsory too. British children start school at 5. They go to the primary school, which has two divisions: the infant school (from 5 to 8) and junior school. From 11t to 16t British children go to a secondary school. At the age of 16 schoolchildren may leave the school or remain two years longer to prepare for university or college entrance. Education is free; everybody can go to a university or any higher school after finishing secondary school. In Lithuania children go to school five days a week. The school year begins September and ends in the middle of June.
Education in Lithuania has been centralized for a long time. The curriculum may slighty differ from school to school but basic subjects are included in the curriculum of all schools At that time in Great Britain the education system has been decentralized for a long time. The school curriculum, the organization of lessons, and other things vary from school to school. There are two types of secondary schools: grammar school – giving education up to the age of 18, preparing pupils for university entrance and secondary modern school, which gave general education and some practical training up to the age of 15. After a secondary school, a vocation college or a manual training school, children can take entrance exams and enter the university.