English topic – Relations

I have learned that all a person has in life is family and friends. If you lose those you have nothing so friends are treasured more then anything else in the world. It is not important if your friend is grown- up person or just a kid if he is male or female. You need to feel that it is true friend.
I like nice people who isn’t unnatural and which I can depend. Such is my best friend with her I meet in childhood. We grow together play and feel a lot of good moment. I love to listen how she talks what she thinks and how she expresses her opinion. I can always ask her questions and I am sure she will know the answer.
I am very happy that I have best friend and I hope that associate with her long time.

English topic – Travelling

Many people like travels because it is associated to holidays. But a Travel can be much more than holidays. A travel is a personal adventure, a Mean to see the world from another point of view and to forget your own everyday life problems.

There are various means of travel. We can travel by train, boat, airplane, and finally we can travel on foot. First of all I will say what I think about walking. So, when you use your foot, of course then it is the cheapest way to get somewhere. But if that place is some 100 or more km. away, then everyone prefers a faster way of travelling. I agree that travelling on foot is good for your health, but just imagine that you have to go to another country and return using only your foot – I do not think, that it will be very healthy for you.

Travelling by car is the finest type of travelling. It’s noisy, not good for nature, more dangerous, but it’s fast, comfortable and easy to use. Ship and plane are very useful too, when you have to reach another continent, because usually it would be too wet to get there another way.

Besides all these means of transport people usually get their trip by trains and hitch-hiking. I think, everybody knows, how cheep it is when you spent money given by your parents somewhere else. So it’s no need to speak about train. And the last way of getting somewhere from somewhere is hitch-hiking. Of course, anyone can say that it’s dangerous, but you really don’t need to go alone. It’s even more fun when you go together with your only-friend, girl friend or boy friend. So, I think, it is the funniest way to travel.

English topic – Free time

Every person is interested in his or her hobby from childhood. Same young people are keen on doing crossword puzzles because many magazines and papers are full of them but this hobby needs much knowledge in ever sphere of life. The boys usually like watching TV, fishing and especially now playing computer games. On weekends the young people go on discos. Some boys and girls go in sports. They attend various sports – basketball, football, handball athletics and so on. There are very few young people especially schoolchildren who like reading books. Many pupils after lessons go to music school art where they learn to play some instruments.
TV radio newspapers or magazines are very popular in Lithuania, There are a lot of TV channels so the young people mostly like LNK TV3 TV4 and MTV channels because there are more interesting films more music. Radio is also very popular among young people. They like listening music. Every teenager has a favourite pop group or singer.
The most popular newspaper in Lithuania is “LIETUVOS RYTAS”. It is popular not only among young at all. Older people find there what is happening in Lithuania and in the world. They find articles on political events, sports, life of interesting people and so on. There are also many other newspaper and magazines. Young people like reading magazines I think it is good because they don’t like read a books.

English topic – House and home

I live with my family in apartment house. This house is in Stadionas street. I live on the third floor. The number of my flat is 20. Our 3 room flat is rather big. It has got two bedrooms, a living- room, a hall, a kitchen, a bathroom and toilet. There is a balcony in my flat. I have a fine view from the balcony and windows.
One of two bedrooms is my room. It’s not big but it’s cosy and lively. My room’s walls are painted in bright green colour and the window is shrouded in dark green blinds. There are small brown rug on the floor, a bookcase, a wardrobe, a bed, and table with a computer on it in my room.
Next bedroom is my parent’s room. It’s rather big room. Walls are painted in pink colour and windows are shrouded in blinds .The floor is carpeted. There is a big double bed, two bedside tables, a wardrobe, a small table with a TV on it and some plants on the windowsill in the room.
The biggest room of all is a living room. Room’s walls are papered, windows are shrouded in colourful blinds and on the floor there is a big grey carpet. There is a sofa, two armchairs, a little table, a wall unit and some pictures on the walls in the living-room.
Our hall is not very big. There is a hall stand, a dressing table and a mirror in the hall.
Our kitchen is small. There is a wooden kitchen unit, a fridge and a gas stove.
A bathroom is very small. There is a small bath with a shower, a basis, a washer and a mirror.
I have all amenities hot and cold water, gas, electric light, central heating.

English topic – Personal identification

I’m Milda. I was born in 1989 on the 17th of April in Vilnius. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the second child in the family. I live with my family: father, mother and elder sister. All my Family members are catholic. Our family are very friendly. We celebrate all Lithuanian holidays together. My favourite group is Skamp. My favourite singer is Andrius Mamontovas. After all every young person has a favourite pop group.

 When I was a child I can say, that I was a good girl. My parents have never had serious problems with me. That’s why they always trust me and I’m very thankful for that. I think that my character isn’t bad and I’m a good, sincere and tolerant teenager. 

In 1996 I started school and now I’m graduating it. I am good at all subjects especially history. This subject is the most interesting for me and I would like to study it. That’s all about myself.

Alcohol and teenagers

I will talk about alcohol and teenagers. I think that alcohol is very actual for young people nowadays.
In the diagram I can see that boys are taking stimulants more and more. Since 2003 girls who are 15-16 years old have declined alcohol use. I agree that alcoholism is widely spread among 15-16 years old group, because I think that teenagers like trying everything in their life. Considering on the diagram alcoholism in this age group is sufficiently serious national problem. Because such teenagers can make many crimes and can befall more accidents.
My attitude towards alcohol is positive, but I think that too much alcohol isn’t good. I have participated in celebration without alcohol. We had a very good time. I think that the most important thing is to be with your friends and alcohol is not necessary then. My friends respect each other and never laugh at a person who refuses to use alcohol. However, usually such persons are laughed at. Nobody wants to be in such situations and so many teenagers start drinking alcohol. Moreover, most teenagers especially boys want to be popular among their friends and think that alcohol can help to get enough attention. Also teenagers want to grow up faster and behave as adults do.
Alcoholism cause many problems. Firstly, it can cause many diseases for example, epilepsy, cirrhosis, enlargement of the heart. Also alcoholism causes many family’s problems. It changes family’s life. It is not easy to stop the growth of alcoholism among young people. But there are some ways to reduce this problem. Firstly, teenagers should have more out of school activities. They should travel, visit museums and other interesting places, meet with different people, participate in competitions, go to concerts, theatres and do many other activities. Also advertisement of alcohol should be banned.

The Country I`d Like to Visit



Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Southern Europe, with two small exclaves in North Africa (both bordering Morocco). The mainland of Spain is bounded on the south and east by Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), on the north by the Bay of Biscay and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean (containing the Canary Islands off the African coast). Spain shares land borders with Portugal, France, Andorra, Gibraltar and Morocco. It is the largest of three sovereign states that make up the Iberian Peninsula — the others being Portugal and Andorra.
In relation to many other countries of the world Spain, with its surface area of 505,957 square kilometers, takes up only a small part of the map. In terms of the European continent, however, Spain is the third largest country after the Community of Independent Sates and France.

Flag of Spain

Population. The population of Spain is 39 million, according to 1991 figures, which supposes an average density of 78 inhabitants per square kilometre, that is to say, one of the lowest rates of density of the European Union, somewhat higher than Greece and Ireland and sic times less than that of the Netherlands. The unequal distribution of the population throughout the territory has created an imbalance among the regions, presenting widely different population densities. There is a growing tendency for the population to concentrate in the coastal regions and of depopulation in the interior, with the exception of Madrid and a few other cities, owing to industrialization and urbanization.
Spain’s population density, at 87.8/km² (220/sq. mile), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution along the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast.

The population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the spectacular demographic boom by the 60’s and early 70’s. The pattern of growth was extremely uneven due to large-scale internal migration from the rural interior to the industrial cities during the 60’s and 70’s. No fewer than eleven of Spain’s fifty provinces saw an absolute decline in population over the century. Then, after the birth rate plunged in the 80’s and Spain’s population became stalled, a new population increase started based initially in the return of many Spanish who emigrated to other European countries during the 70’s and, more recently, it has been boosted by the large figures of foreign immigrants, mostly from Latin America (38.75%), Eastern Europe (16.33%), North Africa (14.99%) and Sub-Saharan Africa (4.08%).[46] In 2005, Spain instituted a 3-month amnesty program through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency. Also some important pockets of population coming from other countries in the European Union are found (20.77% of the foreign residents), specially along the Mediterranean costas and Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or even telework. These are mostly English, French, German, and Dutch from fellow EU countries and, from outside the EU, Norwegian.

Sports. Sport in Spain has been traditionally dominated by football (soccer) (since the early 20th century), cycling and bullfighting (since the 17th century). Today, Spain is a major world sports power, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona and promoted a great variety of sports in the country. The great touristic attraction of the country has caused an improvement of the sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing.
Bullfighting was started in the village squares and became formalized with the building of the bullring in Ronda in the late 18th century.

Bullfighting follows this sequence of events: the entrance of the bull, the picador, the banderillos, and finally the matador (bullfighter). Spanish-style bullfighting is called a corrida de toros, and is also named fiesta brava. In a traditional corrida three toreros, also called matadores (or in French, toreadores), each fight two out of a total of six bulls, each of which is at least four years old and weighs up to about 600 kg.
Bullfighting season in Spain runs from March to October. The fights that attract the most people are the ones held during a fiesta. The most prestigious of such fights is held for the fiesta of San Isidro in Madrid. Another day Spaniards celebrate is the feast day of San Pedro Regalado. Tradition has it that on this day in Valladolid there is a bullfight.

Football is is the most played sport in Spain. The highest division of football is La Liga, and is widely regarded as one of the world’s strongest, containing clubs such as Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and Valencia CF.
The Spanish national football team has made it to the World Cup finals eleven times, reaching every tournament since 1978. However, at the finals they are regarded as perennial underachievers: once there, Spain’s best finish was fourth place in 1950 and apart from that they have never progressed past the quarter-finals. Their record in the European Championship is slightly better: they were champions in 1964 and runners-up in 1984, but again have not progressed past the quarter-finals since then.
Spain won a silver medal in 2000 at the Sydney Games. They took the gold in Barcelona in 1992.

Government / Parties. Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales. The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the President of Government (comparable to a prime minister), proposed by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative elections.

Geography . At 194,884 mi² (504,782 km²), Spain is the world’s 51st-largest country. It is comparable in size to Turkmenistan, and is somewhat larger than the U.S. state of California.
On the west, Spain borders Portugal, on the south, it borders Gibraltar (a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its cities in North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla). On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it borders France and the tiny principality of Andorra. Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the strait of Gibraltar, known as Plazas de soberanía, such as the Chafarine islands, the isle of Alborán, the “rocks” (peñones) of Vélez and Alhucemas, and the tiny Isla Perejil. In the northeast along the Pyrenees, a small exclave town called Llívia in Catalonia is surrounded by French territory.
Mainland Spain is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada. Running from these heights are several major rivers such as the Tajo, the Ebro, the Duero, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir. Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia.
Due to Spain’s geographical situation and orographic conditions, the climate is extremely diverse; it can be roughly divided in three areas:
A temperate version of the Continental climate takes place in the inland areas of the Peninsula (largest city, Madrid).
The Mediterranean climate region, which roughly extends from the Andalusian plain along the southern and eastern coasts up to the Pyrenees, on the seaward side of the mountain ranges that run near the coast (largest city, Barcelona).
An Oceanic climate takes place in Galicia and the coastal strip by the Bay of Biscay (largest city, Bilbao). This area is often called Green Spain.

The map of Spain

Religion in Spain. Roman Catholicism is the main religion in the country. About 76% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, about 2% with another religious faith, and about 19% identify as non-believers or atheists. A study conducted in October 2006 by the Spanish Centre of Sociological Investigations[51] shows that from the 76% of Spaniards who identify as Catholics or other religious faith, 54% hardly ever or never go to church, 15% go to church some times a year, 10% some time per month and 19% every Sunday or multiple times per week. About 22% of the whole Spanish population attend religious services at least once a month.
Barcelona CathedralEvidence of the secular nature of contemporary Spain can be seen in the widespread support for the legalization of same-sex marriage in Spain — over 66% of Spaniards support gay marriage according to a 2004 study by the Centre of Sociological Investigations.[52] Indeed, in June 2005 a bill was passed by 187 votes to 147 to allow gay marriage, making Spain the third country in the European Union to allow same-sex couples to marry after Belgium and the Netherlands.
Protestant denominations are also present, all of them with less than 50,000 members, about 20,000 in the case of the Latter-day Saints (Mormons). Evangelism has been better received among Gypsies than among the general population; pastors have integrated flamenco music in their liturgy. Taken together, all self-described “Evangelicals” slightly surpass Jehovah’s Witnesses (105,000) in number.
The recent waves of immigration have led to an increasing number of Muslims, who have about 1 million members. Muslims had not lived in Spain for centuries; however, colonial expansion in Northern and Western Africa gave some number of residents in the Spanish Morocco and the Sahara Occidental full citizenship. Nowadays, Islam is the second largest religion in Spain, after Roman Catholicism, accounting for approximately 3% of the total population.
Along with these waves of immigration, an important number of Latin American people, who are usually strong Catholic practitioners, have helped the Catholic Church to recover.
Judaism was practically non-existent until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 50,000 Jews in Spain, all arrivals in the past century and accounting less than 1% of the total number of inhabitants. Spain is believed to have been about 8% Jewish on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition.

Barcelona Cathedral
Culture and famous people. Julio José Iglesias de la Cueva (born September 23, 1943 in Madrid, Spain) is Spain’s best selling singer and the best-selling Spanish singer of all time. Julio Iglesias has sold over 250 million records[1] in different languages and released 77 records. He thus far has performed approximately 5,000 concerts during his career.
Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech Marquis of Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), popularly known as Salvador Dalí, was a Spanish (Catalan) artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th century. He was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking, bizarre, and beautiful images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters.[1] His best known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in 1931. Salvador Dalí’s artistic repertoire also included film, sculpture, and photography. He collaborated with Walt Disney on the Academy Award-nominated short cartoon Destino, which was released posthumously in 2003. Born in Catalonia, Spain, Dalí insisted on his “Arab lineage,” claiming that his ancestors descended from the Moors who invaded Spain in 711, and attributed to these origins, “my love of everything that is gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes.”[2]
Widely considered to be greatly imaginative, Dalí had an affinity for doing unusual things to draw attention to himself. This sometimes irked those who loved his art as much as it annoyed his critics, since his eccentric manner sometimes drew more public attention than his artwork.[3] The purposefully sought notoriety led to broad public recognition and many purchases of his works by people from all walks of life.

Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese tourada, corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a tradition that involves professional performers (in Spanish toreros or matadores, in Portuguese toureiros) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the bull itself. Such manoeuvers are performed at close range, and conclude (in Spanish-style bullfighting) with the death of the bull by a well-placed sword thrust as the finale. In Portugal the finale consists of a tradition called the pega, where men (Forcados) are dressed in a traditional costume of damask or velvet, with long knit hats as worn by the famous Ribatejo campinos (bull headers).
Labeled as a blood sport and considered a traditional event by some, or an example of animal cruelty by others, the practice generates heated controversy in many areas of the world, including Spain where the “classic” bullfighting was born. There is contention between supporters of bullfighting — who claim it is a long held and culturally important tradition — and animal rights groups — who oppose bullfighting due to the suffering of the bull and horses during the bullfight.

History of Vilnius city



The establishment of the City of Vilnius has a very popular legend. Once upon a time the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas was hunting in the holy woods of the Valley of Šventaragis. Tired after the successful day hunt the Grand Duke settled for night there. He fell asleep soundly and had a dream. A huge iron wolf was standing on top a hill and the sound of hundreds of other wolves inside it filled all surrounding fields and woods. Upon wakeup, the Duke asked the pagan priest Lizdeika to reveal the secret of the dream. And he told: ”What is destined for the ruler and the state of Lithuania, let it be: the iron wolf means a castle and a town which will be established by the ruler on this site. The town will be the capital of the Lithuania lands and the dwelling of rulers the and glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world.


Vilnius was always open to different cultures, customs and nations. The churches of the capital Vilnius, which has an abundance of them, marvelously reflect this fast. As in every medieval city, the churches and monasteries have created the city’s unique character while the church towers have created its mood. The decorative churches facades, domes, towers and belfries with their wavy lines harmoniously flow into the hilly rhythm of the surroundings and adorn the Vilnius skyline.


Standing at the foot of Gediminas hill, Vilnius Cathedral is Lithuania’s spiritual and political centre. It is thought that in pagan times this was the location of an altar, an eternal fire, or ever a temple of Perkūnas. King Mindaugas built the original cathedral in 1251 after his conversion to Christianity. In 1387, on the occasion of the official conversion of the whole of Lithuania to Christianity, a gothic style cathedral was built. The coronation ceremonies of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania from Vytautas to Žygimantas Augustas took place there. Due to fires,wars and unstable ground, the Cathedral was rebuilt more than once. As a result, gothic, renaissance and baroque styles are reflected in its architectural history.
The most beautiful part of the Cathedral, the baroque chapel of St Casimir, was built in 1623-1636 at the initiative of King Sigismundus Vasa. The chapel contains a unique 18th century goblet-shaped pulpit and 18th century silver-plated statues of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and King of Poland .

After the last reconstruction was performed according to the design of Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius, the church acquired the strict quadrangular shape favored by French classicism. The Cathedra was the most monumental building with the purest classical style in the entire territory of the Polish-Lithuanian state (Rzeczpospolita). Now, a tall portico with 6 Doric columns and sculptures by the Italian sculptor, T. Righi, which stand in the niches, decorate the main facade of the Cathedral. The tympanum portrays the sacrifice of Noah.
The interior of the Cathedral is also very rich: there are more then 40 artworks from the 16th-19th centuries inside, both frescoes and small and large pictures. A museum, with and exposition reflecting the history of the building from the pagan temple until the present day, is located in the Cathedral’s catacombs. During the restoration of the Cathedral, the very first floor, laid in the days of Mindaugas, was found in addition to the remains of the Cathedral built in 1387, the altars of a pagan temple,and other archaeological finds. A fresco dated to the end of 14th century, the oldest known fresco in Lithuania, was found on the wall of one of the underground chapels.
The Cathedral’s bell tower (57 m or 187 ft ) was built atop a Lower Castle defensive tower. Its oldest underground square section was even built in the 13th century on the bottom of the old riverbed. The bell tower acquired its present appearance after the 1801 reconstruction.


The gates of Dawn are one of the symbols of the city of Vilnius. These gates are a famous Catholic shrine not only in the whole of Lithuania but also abroad. Built on the road to the city of Medininkai and originally called the Mrdininkai gates, they were one of the original five gates of Vilnius built together with city wall. The three-tiered gates stand in the southern part of the Old Town, open onto M. Daukša Street, and are connected to a surviving section of the defensive wall.
The building’s unique renaissance attic is decorated with a décor characteristic of that style. The main façade of the gates is adorned with gryphons bearing the arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Beside it to the east stands part of the city wall. This is the longest section of all those remaining.
The picture of the Mother of Mercy of the Gates of Dawn is wall known among Catholics worldwide. The image of the Virgin Mary, covered with gold by an unknown 17th century goldsmith, has the features of both the gothic style and icon painting. Painted with tempera on oak boards, it was later repainted with oil paints.


The first Evangelical church (Kirche) in this location was built in 1555 at the Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Mikalojus Radvila Juodasis. The church is small and modest with an ornate nigh altar created by the architect, J. K. Glaubitz. Atop the 19th century tower is a nigh tin-plated spire. The height of the bell tower is 30 m (91 ft).


The Moorish-style Karaim temple was built in 1922-1923 and consecrated in 1922-1923. During the Soviet period, it was closed nad made into a warehouse. Now the Kenesa is once again serving the faithful. The Karaims are a small religious and national community, which was invited to Lithuania from Crimea by Vytautas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. ‘Karaim’ means ‘I am reading (the bible)’.


The Synagogue is the only remaining one of the one hundred and five synagogues and Jewish temples in Vilnius. It was built in the Moorish style in 1903. The Jewish temple has a nice copula and the tablets of Moses are portrayed on the tympanum. The façade bears the inscription in Hebrew: ‘A house of prayer is a holy place for all peoples’. Inside is a separate gallery set aside for women and a choir loft, which also has a small organ.


This Orthodox cathedral stands on the bank of the Vilnelė. It is thought that Julijona, the wife of Algirdas and the mother of Jogaila, established this church in the 14th century and was buried in it. In 1511-1522, Duke K. Ostrogskis rebuilt the almost-ruined old church. The new church was rebuilt in the gothic Byzantine style. In 1609, the church was passed to the control of the Uniates. Finally in 1808, the neglected church was sold to Vilnius University. An anatomy and veterinary museum as well as auditoriums and a library were established in the church. During 1864-1868 at the initiative of General Governor N. Muravyov, the cathedral was rebuilt, acquired its present appearance, and again became an Orthodox church. The present facades and domes imitate Georgian medieval architecture. The interior was recreated during the reconstruction. It is harmonious and has an especially ornate five-tiered iconostas studded with pictures.


The church and the Orthodox monastery were built in this location by the brotherhood of the Holy Trinity in 1567. The brick church was erected in 1638 and reconstructed and decorated in the rococo style by the architect J. K. Glaubitz, during 1749-1753. The simple massive bell tower adds to the calm and symmetric exterior of the church with its two early baroque towers and high (49 m or 161 ft ) dome. Inside the building, there is a great deal of ornate décor from the 18th century. The wooden baroque iconostas, which was created in the late baroque style J. K. Glaubitz, is especially valuable. The church’s vaulting is adorned with a big copula and the façade by two small towers. In 1826-1851, an underground crypt was installed under the iconostas for the burial of the remains of Saints Jonas, Eustchijus, and Antanas, who were the courtiers of Algirdas. At the initiative of Muravyov, the church was reconstructed: the dome was rebuilt and the façade changed significantly. It has reached our time almost unchanged from that date; after entering through the neo-Byzantine style gates, every visitor is greeted by the church, monastery and nunnery complex.


The church was built during 1620-1630 in early baroque (so-called Carmelite) style. A large friary was also built for the Carmelites at the same time.
During the Soviet times, the church housed a folk art museum but has now been returned to the faithful. The bell tower is high and massive with elaborate decorations. After a fire in the 18th century, it was restored and finished with a rococo-style dome roof. A large old rule Carmelite friary, constructed using the existing building is located near the church.


The Church of Lord Jesus or the Trinitarian Church is located behind the former Sapiega family mansion. The church was built during 1694-1717 through the efforts of Kazimieras Sapiega, the Voivode of Vilnius and the Hetman of Lithuania. The Friary, built for the Trinitarians, is located nearby. Above the great entrance door is a relief portraying an angel holding a Trinitarian and a prisoner ransomed by him.

Capital punishment: is it necessary?


Capital punishment: is it necessary?

The death penalty! Some people think of it as a form of justice. Others think of it as a disgrace to humanity. I strongly believe that there should not be a death penalty.

The death penalty deters murder and prevents murderers from killing again by putting the fear of death in to would be killers. A person is less likely to do something, if he or she thinks that harm will come to him. Another way the death penalty may help deter murder is the fact that if the killer is death, he or she will not be able to kill again. Criminals deserve to die and not stay in jail. If a man kills a man and is convicted he should be ready to die next. Supporters of the death penalty feel that criminals should be punished for their crimes, and that it doesn’t matter whether it will deter crime. They want to make examples out of offenders so that the threat of death will be enough to stop them from committing such horrible crimes.

Some people might say to give the murderer life in prison. This is hardly a punishment at all. Today, due to overcrowding in prisons, a lot of prisoners don’t serve their full sentence. Another thing about today’s prisons is that the prisoners get free meals, clothes, bed, electricity, air conditioning and heating, cable and many other luxuries that make it a comfortable place to live if you get used to the people. The death penalty should be given the day after conviction. Many people believe that criminals live in prison off of other people’s hard earned money.

Criminals should think of the consequences before they kill someone. If they don’t do this or did and still killed someone, they probably aren’t intelligent enough to make any positive impact on the world or they are mentally unstable. They shouldn’t get off the hook for killing someone. people might feel that sentencing them to life in prison is punishment enough but to other people it is just getting off the hook.

There are seven main types of execution: Hanging, where the prisoner is blindfolded and stands on a trap door, with a rope around his neck. The trap door is opened suddenly. The weight of the prisoner’s body below the neck causes traction separating the spinal cord from the brain. The second most widely used technique is shooting, where a firing quad shoots the prisoner from some meters away. Another method is Guillotine, a device consisting of a heavy blade held aloft between upright guides and dropped to behead the victim below. Then there was garroting, in which a tightened iron collar is used to strangle or break the neck of a condemned person. One of the more recent is Electrocution where the prisoner is fastened to a chair by his chest, groin, arms and legs. Electrodes are placed around a band around the head, and then jolts of 4-8 amperes at voltage between 500 and 2000 volts are applied at half a minute at a time. The newest forms of execution are Lethal Injection where a lethal poison is injected into the prisoners arm or the Gas Chamber where the prisoner is placed in a room with Sodium Cyanide crystals and left to die.

To give a killer the death penalty it would reassure the people close to the victim it would not happen again. Also it gives them the feeling that the death has been avenged. A family will feel less pain if the killer dies like he should. It also makes criminals think about whether committing a crime is really worth their lives. When a killer stays in prison he takes up space in already over crowed prisons. Capital punishment ensures peace of mind to the world because it ensures that murders will never kill again.

I deeply oppose the death penalty. It is more expensive than any prison sentence. It is also very unfair because innocent people have been executed. It has not reduced crime, like some supporters would have us believe.

Danger of terrorism


This topic concerns wide aspect of crimes, because definition of terrorism isn’t unanimous concept.
My task was:
• using analysis method formalize the optimal concept of this type of crime,
• participate existing terrorist group and define some of them,
• to separate the main reason for such an action and motivation with or without religious aspect,
• to display what kind of institutions or organizations take care of our security international or transnational aspect.
• Contemplate terrorism future, is it possible that this type of crime may increase or contrariwise,
• To talk about countries with a large terrorism presence,
• Finally, to summarize all this information and to present it.

1.1. Danger of international crimes
International crime may refer to:
• Crime against international law. It’s a number of crimes against international law that are created by treaty and convention.
• Crime against humanity. It is an act of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, and is the highest level of criminal offense. Such criminal acts as murder, extermination, torture, rape, political, racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.
• Crime against peace. In international law defines as the act of military invasion as a war crime, specifically referring to starting or waging war against the integrity, independence, or sovereignty of a territory or state, and other military violation of relevant international treaties, agreements or legally binding assurances.
• War crime. It is a punishable offense under international law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. Every violation of the law of war in an inter-state conflict is a war crime, while violations in internal conflicts are typically limited to the local jurisdiction.
• International criminal law. It is an autonomous branch of law which deals with international crimes and the courts and tribunals set up to adjudicate cases in which persons have incurred international criminal responsibility. It represents a significant departure from ‘classical’ international law which was mainly considered law created by states for the benefit of states, but the individual is tended to ignore as a subject of the law. The most important institution is the International Criminal Court and two ad hoc tribunals:
 The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
 The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

Another category of crimes is transnational crimes. “The word “transnational” defines crimes that are not only international, that is, crimes that cross borders between countries, but crimes that by their nature have border crossings as an essential part of the criminal activity.” It also includes crimes that take place abroad. Transnational crimes are:
• Trafficking in human beings. It is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. This sort of crime involves a process of using illicit means such as threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion and etc.
• People smuggling. It means transportation of people across international borders to a non-official entry point of a destination country for a variety of reasons. Mostly, travel without documents or prior approval to enter the destination country. This crime is totally equivalent to slavery.
• Illegal arms trade. It is underground massive global industry and business which manufacturers and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. These arms trade are using for illegal actions considered of massive crimes.
• Sex slavery. It is a special case of unwilling slavery which includes such practices as:
 forced prostitution;
 single-owner sexual slavery;
 ritual slavery (associated with traditional religious practices);
 slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible
• Terrorism.
1.2. Terrorism definition
There are various descriptions of terrorism. It is defining as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and a holy duty; a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. This type of crime includes an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict. It may be considered as an asymmetric form of conflict which confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost.
Terrorism is increasingly common among those pursuing extreme goals throughout the world, that’s why preemption is so important. Despite all these actions pointed against the terrorism is a nebulous concept, even within fight against this crime we use different definitions. “The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”
There are some key elements that produce terror in its victims:
 Violence,
 Fear,
 Intimidation.
Finally, we may consider all definitions and make a conclusion that terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. It is violence or other harmful acts committed against civilians for political or other ideological goals.
Also terrorism is sometimes used “when attempting to force political change by convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid future harm or fear of harm, destabilizing an existing government, motivating a disgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopes of disrupting the status quo, expressing a grievance, or drawing attention to a cause.”
There is made global compromise that terrorism must not be accepted under any circumstances. That’s why this solution is reflected in all important conventions.
1.3. The main reason for terror acts
The main reason for terror act is ideological motivation that will influence the objectives of terrorist operations, especially regarding the casualty rate.
Of course there are groups with secular ideologies and non-religious goals. Such terrorist will often attempt highly selective and discriminate acts of violence to achieve a specific political aim. They keep minimum amount of casualties that are necessary to attain the objective.
According to some literature “religiously oriented and millenarian groups typically attempt to inflict as many casualties as possible. Because of the apocalyptic frame of reference they use, loss of life is irrelevant, and more casualties are better. Losses among their co-religionists are of little account, because such casualties will reap the benefits of the afterlife. Likewise, non-believers, whether they are the intended target or collateral damage, deserve death, and killing them may be considered a moral duty.”
Choosing the target often reflect motivations and ideologies.
Terrorist Groups intent is to commit acts of violence to:
• Produce widespread fear
• Obtain worldwide, national, or local recognition for their cause by attracting the attention of the media
• Harass, weaken, or embarrass government security forces so that the government overreacts and appears repressive
• Steal or extort money and equipment, especially weapons and ammunition vital to the operation of their group
• Destroy facilities or disrupt lines of communication in order to create doubt that the government can provide for and protect its citizens
• Discourage foreign investments, tourism, or assistance programs that can affect the target country’s economy and support of the government in power
• Influence government decisions, legislation, or other critical decisions
• Release prisoners
• Satisfy vengeance
1.4. Terrorist groups
Because of mass different categories of terrorism it is used terrorist group definition. Nowadays there exist such terrorist groups as:
• Separatist. They follow the goal of separation from existing entities through independence, political autonomy, or religious freedom or domination. Their ideologies include social justice or equity, anti-imperialism, as well as the resistance to conquest or occupation by a foreign power.
• Ethnocentric. They persuasion see race as the defining characteristic of a society, and therefore a basis of cohesion. Their actions display attitude that a particular group is superior because of their inherent racial characteristics.
• Nationalistic. Their goal is the loyalty and devotion to a nation, and the national consciousness derived from placing one nation’s culture and interests above those of other nations or groups.
• Revolutionary. Dedicated to the overthrow of an established order and replacing it with a new political or social structure.
• Political. Political ideologies are concerned with the structure and organization of the forms of government and communities.
• Religious. This is kind or terrorist group is mostly spread, it takes even a forty-three percent increase of total international terror groups espousing religious motivation. Religiously motivated terrorists see their objectives as holy writ, and therefore infallible and non-negotiable.
• Social. Often particular social policies or issues will be so contentious that they will incite extremist behavior and terrorism. Frequently this group is referred to as “single issue” or “special interest” terrorism. Some issues that have produced terrorist activities in the United States and other countries include animal rights, abortion, ecology/environment, and minority rights.
• Domestic. These terrorists are “home-grown” and operate within and against their home country. They are frequently tied to extreme social or political factions within a particular society, and focus their efforts specifically on their nation’s socio-political arena.
• International or Transnational. International groups typically operate in multiple countries, but retain a geographic focus for their activities.
• Transnational groups operate internationally, but are not tied to a particular country, or even region, for example Al Qaeda is transnational terrorist group.

2.1. NATO – transatlantic organization
NATO is an Alliance that consists of 26 independent member countries.
NATO structure:
• Civilian structure
• Military structure
• Organizations and agencies
NATO and their anti-terror policy engaged in a far-reaching transformation of its forces and capabilities to better deter and defend against terrorism, and this Alliance is working closely with partner countries and organizations to ensure broad cooperation in the fight against terrorism.
This organization is contributing to the fight against terrorism through military operations in Afghanistan, the Balkans and the Mediterranean and by taking steps to protect its populations and territory against terrorist attacks. NATO has taken a number of changes to improve its ability to protect Alliance populations and territories against terrorist attacks and their consequences.
They are also working to improve civil preparedness against, and to manage the consequences of, possible terrorist attacks with chemical, biological and radiological agents.
2.2. EU security policy
After terror attack in USA in 2001, the European Union has been determined to step up the fight against terrorism. This historical event leaded this organization to adopt a Framework Decision urging Member States to align their legislation and setting out minimum rules on terrorist offences. After defining such terrorist offences, the Framework Decision lays down the penalties that Member States must incorporate in their national legislation.
The Framework Decision is applicable to any terrorist offence which is committed or prepared with intent in a Member State or which may seriously damage a country or an international organization.
Terrorist offences must characterize such features as:
• Intimidating people,
• Seriously altering or destroying the political, economic or social structures of a country.
For example: murder, bodily injuries, hostage taking, extortion, fabrication of weapons, committing attacks, threatening to commit any of the above, etc. These offences may be committed by one or more individuals against one or more countries.
Penalties for offenders who did terrorist act, Member States must make provision in their national legislation for:
• effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal penalties;
• mitigating circumstances (collaborating with the police and judicial authorities, finding evidence or identifying the other offenders, etc.).
With a view to improve cooperation in the fight against crime EU made a decision to establish organization Eurojust. This body with legal personality is competent to act in investigations and prosecutions relating to serious crime concerning at least two Member States. Eurojust has a key role to play in the fight against terrorism.
Eurojust’s competence covers transnational crimes and offences for which Europol has competence, (e.g.: terrorism, drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings, counterfeiting and money-laundering, computer crime, fraud and corruption, the laundering of the proceeds of crime, participation in a criminal organization).

3.1. Terror acts in USA
One of the most terrible terror actions were implemented on 11th September, 2001 in the United States of America. This date is often referred to as 9/11 – emergency call number in US. Terror attacks consisted of a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon USA.
Everything started on that morning nineteen terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. Each team of hijackers included a trained pilot.
The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the World Trade Center in New York City, one plane into each tower. Resulting in the collapse of both buildings soon damaged to nearby buildings.
The third airliner crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington Country, Virginia, near Washington.
Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft attempted to retake control of their plane from the hijackers and that plane crashed into a field near the town of Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania.
After all these events there was no question that there was going to be some sort of retaliation and response from the United States. But now it is though how this sort of revenge would be carried out.
And as a resulting the USA declared war on terror. And this policy of the president of US against terror was supportive by society.
But now this policy is very criticized, because justice cannot exist without respect for human rights.
3.2. Countries with large terrorism presence
There are some counties where appearance of terrorism is quiet bright, and it is called that they are with large terrorism presence. In such counties terrorists have long found refuge in countries and in many cases worked hand in hand with the local governments and the host countries do not try to disassociate themselves from their ties to terrorism and in some cases continue to provide tacit support and use terror to accomplish broader objectives. Some of the countries with significant terrorist operations include:
• Iraq
• Pakistan
• Syria
• Afghanistan
Terror organizations used Afghanistan as their training and operational base. Al Qaeda was the broad umbrella organization that recruited terrorists from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asia and around the world, training them in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Some of the terrosist groups still operating in the region include Al Qaeda, Al-Jihad, Lashkar-i-Jhangvi, Islamic Group, Armed Islamic Group, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
• Sudan
• Iran
Iran has long been an active sponsor of Islamic terrorism, including accusations of it supporting subversive activities in Iraq.
3.3. Future of terrorism
Terrorism has demonstrated increasing abilities to adapt to counter-terrorism measures and political failure. Terrorists are developing new capabilities of attack and improving the efficiency of existing methods. Additionally, terrorist groups have shown significant progress in escaping from a subordinate role in nation-state conflicts, and becoming prominent as international influences in their own right. Everytime they are becoming more integrated with other sub-state entities, such as criminal organizations and legitimately chartered corporations, and are gradually assuming a measure of control and identity with national governments.
Terrorist always uses modern technologies or event make a beginning to new ones.
Terrorists are improving their sophistication and abilities in virtually all aspects of their operations and support. The aggressive use of modern technology for information management, communication and intelligence has increased the efficiency of these activities. Weapons technology has become more increasingly available, and the purchasing power of terrorist organizations is on the rise. The ready availability of both technology and trained personnel to operate it for any client with sufficient cash allows the well-funded terrorist to equal or exceed the sophistication of governmental counter-measures.
Likewise, due to the increase in information outlets, and competition with increasing numbers of other messages, terrorism now requires a greatly increased amount of violence or novelty to attract the attention it requires. The tendency of major media to compete for ratings and the subsequent revenue realized from increases in their audience size and share produces pressures on terrorists to increase the impact and violence of their actions to take advantage of this sensationalism.


In conclusion, it is possible to predicate that terrorism as a crime is just one direction of international (or transnational) or national crimes. However this type of crime is describing as a most harmful. Terror actions may course global consequences, f. e. September 11 attack. After this event all the world was shocked and made them to think about operations against the terrorism, to pass statements that could unify States to fight against such action together.
According some literature countries with a large terrorism presence are such as:
• Iraq
• Pakistan
• Syria
• Afghanistan
• Sudan
• Iran
Terrorism there is some kind of part of state control. It may influence the religious belief or just a mental disability.
Finally, there is only one unanimous opinion that terrorism must be prevented.


1. Attachment time: 2007-11-03, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11,_2001_attacks
2. Attachment time: 2007-11-05 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transnational_crime
3. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.terrorism-research.com/
4. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.nato.int/structur/home.htm
5. Attachment time: 2007-11-06 http://www.nato.int/issues/capabilities/index.html
6. Attachment time: 2007-11-09 http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/s22011.htm
7. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/WarOnTerror.asp
8. Attachment time: 2007-11-10 http://www.terrorism-research.com/state/c




Photography is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical or electronic medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically.

Lens and mounting of a large-format camera

A student using a handheld digital camera.

The word “photography” comes from the French photographie which is based on the Greek words φως phos (“light”), and γραφίς graphis (“stylus”, “paintbrush”) or γραφή graphê (“representation by means of lines” or “drawing”), together meaning “drawing with light.” Traditionally, the product of photography has been called a photograph, commonly shortened to photo.

1. Photographic cameras

The camera or camera obscura is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.
Photographers control the camera and lens to “expose” the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a “latent image” or “raw file” which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Modern digital cameras replace film with an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.
The controls usually include but are not limited to the following:

• Focus of the lens
• Aperture of the lens.
• Shutter speed.
• White balance.
• Metering.
• ISO speed.
• Auto-focus point.

2. Uses of photography

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge’s study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used to preserve memories of favorite times, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment.
Commercial advertising relies heavily on photography and has contributed greatly to its development.

3. History of photography

Nicéphore Niépce’s earliest surviving photograph, c. 1826. This image required an eight-hour exposure, which resulted in sunlight being visible on both sides of the buildings.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera. Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate, and Georges Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silver chloride. Daniel Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1568. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The fiction book Giphantie (by the French Thiphaigne de La Roche, 1729-1774) described what can be interpreted as photography.
Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photograph was an image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce. However, the picture took eight hours to expose, so he went about trying to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1839.
Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre’s invention, Talbot refined his process so that it might be fast enough to take photographs of people. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process, which creates negative images. John Herschel made many contributions to the new methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now familiar as the “blueprint”. He was the first to use the terms “photography”, “negative” and “positive”. He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to “fix” pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.
In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in “The Chemist” on the wet plate Collodion process. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1880s when the dry plate was introduced. There are three subsets to the Collodion process; the Ambrotype (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper.
Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

4. Photography types

Black-and-white photography

“Casting Winds” – this black & white displays the classic monochrome look, as well as the use of simulated optical filtering to enhance or diminish the rendering of certain light wavelengths.
All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its “classic” photographic look. In modern times, black-and-white has mostly become a minority art form, and most photography has become color photography.
Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some cameras have even been produced to exclusively shoot monochrome.

Color photography

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid 1800s. Early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
Early color photograph taken by Prokudin-Gorskii (1915)
One of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color filter in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a darkroom or processing plant. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii developed another technique, with three color plates taken in quick succession.
Practical application of the technique was held back by the very limited color response of early film; however, in the early 1900s, following the work of photo-chemists such as H. W. Vogel, emulsions with adequate sensitivity to green and red light at last became available.
The first color plate, Autochrome, invented by the French Lumière brothers, reached the market in 1907. It was based on a ‘screen-plate’ filter made of dyed dots of potato starch, and was the only color film on the market until German Agfa introduced the similar Agfacolor in 1932. In 1935, American Kodak introduced the first modern (‘integrated tri-pack’) color film, Kodachrome, based on three colored emulsions. This was followed in 1936 by Agfa’s Agfacolor Neue. Unlike the Kodachrome tri-pack process the color couplers in Agfacolor Neue were integral with the emulsion layers, which greatly simplified the film processing. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, are based on the Agfacolor Neue technology. Instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.
As an interesting side note, the inventors of Kodachrome, Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky, Jr. were both accomplished musicians. Godowsky was the brother-in-law of George Gershwin and his father was Leopold Godowsky, one of the world’s greatest pianists.
Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in a slide projector or as color negatives, intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photoprinting equipment.

5. Digital photography

Nikon digital camera and scanner, which converts film images to digital

Traditional photography burdened photographers working at remote locations without easy access to processing facilities, and competition from television pressured photographers to deliver images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo journalists at remote locations often carried miniature photo labs and a means of transmitting images through telephone lines. In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.
Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. The primary difference between digital and chemical photography is that analog photography resists manipulation because it involves film, optics and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography, permitting different communicative potentials and applications.
Digital imaging is rapidly replacing film photography in consumer and professional markets. Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer produce reloadable 35 mm cameras after the end of that year. This was interpreted as a sign of the end of film photography. However, Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On May 25, 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[2]
Because photography is popularly synonymous with truth (“The camera doesn’t lie.”), digital imaging has raised many ethical concerns. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make “illustrations,” passing them as real photographs. Many courts will not accept digital images as evidence because of their inherently manipulative nature. Today’s technology has made picture editing relatively easy for even the novice photographer.

6. Photography styles

Commercial photography

Manual shutter control and exposure settings can achieve unusual results

The commercial photographic world can be broken down to:
• Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
• Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men’s magazines. Models in glamour photography may be nude, but this is not always the case.
• Crime Scene Photography: This type of photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such at robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
• Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.
• Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills.
• Editorial photography: photographs made to illustrate a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine.
• Photojournalism: this can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.
• Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.
• Fine art photography: photographs made to fulfill a vision, and reproduced to be sold directly to the customer.
• Landscape photography: photographs of different locations made to be sold to tourists as postcards
The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism “one picture is worth a thousand words,” which has an interesting basis in the history of photography. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography.
Many people take photographs for self-fulfillment or for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can assign a member of the organization or hire someone to shoot exactly what they want, run a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs either through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images, Corbis, or through smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia.

7. Photography as an art form

Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage shows unique aesthetic of black and white photos.

During the twentieth century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art.

Phony meteors strike the sky around Milky Way

At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, ‘romantic’ look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the f/64 Group to advocate ‘straight photography’, the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.
The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images “written with light”; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.
Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only “significant form” can distinguish art from what is not art.
“ There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible – significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. ”

8. Technical photography

The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example) and small creatures when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy). The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, one of the first uses being at the scene of the Tay Rail Bridge disaster of 1879. The set of accident photographs was used in the subsequent court of inquiry so that witnesses could identify pieces of the wreckage, and the technique is now commonplace in courts of law.

9. Other photographic image forming techniques

Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic film, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.

10. Myths and superstition

Photographs capture a life-like view of the subject whereas paintings were subject to the interpretations and level of skill of the painter. Thus, since daguerreotypes were rendered on a mirrored surface, many spiritualists also became practitioners of the new art form. Spiritualists would claim that the human image on the mirrored surface was akin to looking into one’s soul. The spiritualists also believed that it would open their souls and let demons in.

11. Myths in rural India

A few people residing in rural India still believe that taking a photograph of a person reduces his lifetime. This myth was spread even among the educated community until the early twentieth century. The idea was abandoned only when they started seeing personalities and leaders as photographs in newspapers.
Another myth is associated with Vallalar, a saint who lived in the British era in South India, that his image could not be captured by a camera. Moreover his image when seen as a reflection in a mirror was reputed to be that of Lord Muruga, the Hindu God who is believed to help human beings to go through difficult times in their life.


A camera is a device used to capture images, as still photographs or as sequences of moving images (movies or videos). The term as well as the modern-day camera evolved from the camera obscura, Latin for “dark chamber”, an early mechanism for projecting images, in which an entire room functioned as a real-time imaging system. The camera obscura was first invented by the Iraqi scientist Alhazen and described in his Book of (1011-1021).[1] English scientists Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke later invented a portable camera obscura in 1665-1666.[2]
Cameras may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A camera generally consists of some kind of enclosed hollow, with an opening or aperture at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. Most cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera’s opening to gather the incoming light and to focus the image, or part of the image, on the recording surface. The diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm mechanism, but some cameras have a fixed-size aperture.

1. History

Camera obscura.

The forerunner to the camera was the camera obscura. The camera obscura is an instrument consisting of a darkened chamber or box, into which light is admitted through a double convex lens, forming an image of external objects on a surface of paper or glass, etc., placed at the focus of the lens.[4] The camera obscura was first invented by the Iraqi scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) as described in his Book of Optics (1015-1021).[1] English scientist Robert Boyle and his assistant Robert Hooke later developed a portable camera obscura in the 1660s.[2]
The first camera that was small and portable enough to be practical for photography was built by Johann Zahn in 1685, though it would be almost 150 years before technology caught up to the point where this was possible. Early photographic cameras were essentially similar to Zahn’s model, though usually with the addition of sliding boxes for focusing. Before each exposure, a sensitized plate would be inserted in front of the viewing screen to record the image. Jacques Daguerre’s popular daguerreotype process utilized copper plates, while the calotype process invented by William Fox Talbot recorded images on paper.

The first permanent colour photograph, taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861.

The first permanent photograph was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris. Niépce built on a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz (1724): a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light. However, while this was the birth of photography, the camera itself can be traced back much further. Before the invention of photography, there was no way to preserve the images produced by these cameras apart from manually tracing them.
The development of the collodion wet plate process by Frederick Scott Archer in 1850 cut exposure times dramatically, but required photographers to prepare and develop their glass plates on the spot, usually in a mobile darkroom. Despite their complexity, the wet-plate ambrotype and tintype processes were in widespread use in the latter half of the 19th century. Wet plate cameras were little different from previous designs, though there were some models, such as the sophisticated Dubroni of 1864, where the sensitizing and developing of the plates could be carried out inside the camera itself rather than in a separate darkroom. Other cameras were fitted with multiple lenses for making cartes de visite. It was during the wet plate era that the use of bellows for focusing became widespread.
The first colour photograph was made by James Clerk Maxwell, with the help of Thomas Sutton, in 1861.

2. Exposure control

Various Cameras: An Agfa Brownie, Polaroid Land Camera, and Yashica 35 mm SLR

The size of the aperture and the brightness of the scene control the amount of light that enters the camera during a period of time, and the shutter controls the length of time that the light hits the recording surface. Equivalent exposures can be made with a larger aperture and a faster shutter speed or a corresponding smaller aperture and with the shutter speed slowed down.

3. Focus

Due to the optical properties of photographic lenses, only objects within a certain range of distances from the camera will be reproduced clearly. The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the camera’s focus. There are various ways of focusing a camera accurately. The simplest cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens, usually around 3 metres (10 ft) to infinity, is in reasonable focus. Fixed focus cameras are usually inexpensive types, such as single-use cameras. The camera can also have a limited focusing range or scale-focus that is indicated on the camera body. The user will guess or calculate the distance to the subject and adjust the focus accordingly. On some cameras this is indicated by symbols (head-and-shoulders; two people standing upright; one tree; mountains).
Rangefinder cameras allow the distance to objects to be measured by means of a coupled parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the focus to be set with accuracy. Single-lens reflex cameras allow the photographer to determine the focus and composition visually using the objective lens and a moving mirror to project the image onto a ground glass or plastic micro-prism screen. Twin-lens reflex cameras use an objective lens and a focusing lens unit (usually identical to the objective lens) in a parallel body for composition and focusing. View cameras use a ground glass screen which is removed and replaced by either a photographic plate or a reusable holder containing sheet film before exposure. Modern cameras often offer “auto-focus” systems to focus the camera automatically by a variety of methods.
4. Image capture

19th century studio camera, with bellows for focusing.

Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film or photographic plate. Video and digital cameras use electronics, usually a charge coupled device (CCD) or sometimes a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in tape or computer memory inside the camera for later playback or processing.
Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; those designed for single images are still cameras. However these categories overlap, as still cameras are often used to capture moving images in special effects work and modern digital cameras are often able to trivially switch between still and motion recording modes. A video camera is a category of movie camera which captures images electronically (either using analogue or digital technology).
Stereo camera can take photographs that appear “three-dimensional” by taking two different photographs which are combined to create the illusion of depth in the composite image. Stereo cameras for making 3D prints or slides have two lenses side by side. Stereo cameras for making lenticular prints have 3, 4, 5, or even more lenses. Some film cameras feature date imprinting devices that can print a date on the negative itself.

5. Camera brands

• Agfa
• ARCA-Swiss
• Agilux
• Alpa
• Argus
• Asahiflex
• Balda
• Bolex
• Braun
• Bronica
• Burke & James
• Cambo
• Canon
• Casio
• Contax
• Corfield
• Coronet • Ducati
• Diana camera
• Ebony
• Edixa
• Ensign
• Exakta
• Folmer & Schwing
• Fujifilm
• Fujica
• Gami
• Gateway, Inc.
• Graflex
• Hasselblad
• Hewlett Packard
• Holga
• Honeywell • Horseman
• Ilford
• Imaging Solutions Group
• Kodak
• Konica
• Leica
• Linhof
• Lomo
• Lumix
• Minolta
• Mamiya
• Minox
• Miranda
• Mustek
• Newman & Guardia • Nikon
• Olympus
• Oregon Scientific
• Osaka
• Panasonic
• Pentax
• Petri
• Polaroid
• Plaubel Makina
• Praktica
• Reid
• Ricoh
• Rollei
• Samsung
• SatuGO
• Seagull • Sigma
• Silvestri camera
• Sinar
• Sony
• Tessina
• Thornton-Pickard
• Topcon
• Traveler
• Vivitar
• Van Oosbree
• Voigtländer
• Wisner
• Wray
• Yashica
• Zeiss
• Zenit

6. Camera gallery

Contax S—the world’s first pentaprism SLR Asahiflex

Kodak Retina IIIC Voigtländer Vitoret of 1962
Nikon F of 1959 Silvestri Flexicam

Opened up Cine Kodak, used 35mm movie film


A photographer at the Calgary Folk Music Festival

Paparazzi at the Tribeca Film Festival

A photographer is a person who takes a photograph using a camera. A professional photographer uses photography to make a living.
The work of a photographer may be limited to the actual shooting of the camera, or it may include all of the steps in the development of the image up to the presentation of the final product. A photograph may be the work of a single person or of a team. The most common teams are formed of a photographer and a laboratory technician. The laboratory work (photographic processing, image processing, plus other less common techniques) can completely change the appearance of a shot. Post-processing can be an art form in itself, but, the person who took the shot is often more likely to be considered the artist, and the developer an artisan
At the beginning of the photographic era, painters and photographers debated the role of photography in art. If photographers are considered to have “usurped” the exclusive domain of the image from painters, painters were profoundly influenced by the photographic technique, obliging them to better define their domain, subjects, and flexibility of technique. However, certain painters have reduced their art to that of a technician in a development lab, using another technique for copying photographs by hand.
Photographers are often categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, and portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography and commercial photography. The distinction between artistic photography and photojournalism or other types of photography and the associated techniques does not remove this personal aspect from the work of the great photographers.

• Also

 Abstract photographer
 Advertising photographer
 Aerial photographer
 Architectural photographer
 Art photographer
 Digital photography
 Documentary photographer
 Ethnographic photographer
 Fashion photographer
 Food photographer
 Industrial photographer
 Interiors photographer
 Landscape photographer
 Portraitist
 Scientific/technical photographer
 Sports photographer
 War photographer

List of resources

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_photography
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/photography
3. www.bls.gov
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/camera_obscura
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_photography
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photographer
8. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos264.htm
9. http://www.photographers

Trademark “Dove”


The media shows us millions pictures of “beautiful” people and gives us a lot of “lessons” on how to make ourselves more attractive: how to have better hair, better teeth, better makeup or a better body.
Take any fashion magazine and you will see that almost every fashion advertisement company there uses a thin model who looks happy because she has bright skin, new lipstick, beautiful clothes or because she lost her weight because of some new magic pills. Have you seen an overweight male or female appear in the advertisement? This is more proof that we are being manipulated into thinking and being told what is attractive and what isn’t, because if we don’t see the average overweight person in a commercial or billboard advertisement, and only see thin models, it’s just going to be taught to us that fat is bad and thin is good.
Dove, major soap cooperation, made a decision not to support the “perfect image” by using natural beauty in their advertisements. This company wanted to show “real beauty” of “real people” in their ads. That’s why their products are advertised not by young skinny models who you can see only in magazines or on TV but by women who you can see in your city every day. That’s how Dove wants to make real change in the way women and young girls perceived and embraced beauty. To most people and especially women Dove brand associates with middle-aged women who like many people of the world have wrinkles or are over-weight but still they are happy about their lives and take great care of themselves.

Evolution of Dove
In 1955, Lever Brothers introduced Dove, which contained a patented, mild cleansing ingredient, into the soap category. It was positioned as a “bar of soap” with one-fourth cleansing cream that moisturizes skin while washing as opposed to the drying effect of regular soap. Advertisements reinforced the message by showing the cream being poured into the soap.
In 1979, dermatologists showed that Dove dried and irritated skin significantly less than ordinary soaps, based on which Dove started aggressive marketing and won more than 24% of the market by 2003 (http://en.wikipedia.org).
Some key facts:

• the world’s number 1 cleansing brand
• sales of over € 2.5 billion a year in over 80 countries
• outsells all other skin care bars combined in the US
• over 1 billion showers taken with Dove products in the US each year (http://www.unilever.com)

Later Dove expanded into other “personal care” categories – including body wash, hair care, facial cleansing and moisturizing. Finally soap represented only less than half of its sales. Although Dove portfolio had totally changed into that of beauty brand, consumers still perceived Dove as a bar of soap.
A big team was set to reinvent Dove as a beauty brand. It appeared that there were hundreds of competitors in the beauty category and they all didn’t really differentiate from one another. In order to determine the optimal beauty strategy for Dove that would set the brand apart from its competitors a global consumer research study was made.
The results were stunning:
• Only two percent of women describe themselves as beautiful.
• Sixty-three percent strongly agree that society expects women to enhance their physical attractiveness. Forty-five percent of women feel women who are more beautiful have greater opportunities in life.
• More than two-thirds (68%) of women strongly agree that “the media and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty that most woman can’t ever achieve.”
• The majority (76%) wish female beauty was portrayed in the media as being made up of more than just physical attractiveness.
• Seventy-five percent went on to say that they wish the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse physical attractiveness, including age, shape and size (http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com).

In order to personify the notion that real beauty comes in all shapes, sizes and ages, real women were used in the advertising rather than models.At the same time Dove established The Campaign for Real Beauty that aims to change the status quo and offer in its place a broader, healthier, more democratic view of beauty. The campaign exhorted all women to love their bodies every day. The general target for The Campaign for Real Beauty is women age 27-67 (http://www.thearf.com).
Later, as part of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, the Dove Self Esteem Fund (DSEF) was launched in 2004 and formalized the brand’s support to combat eating disorders (http://www.strategymag.com). This Fund seeks to educate and inspire young girls through a series of tools and workshops to become fully realized adults. Through the Fund they aim to reach the lives of 5 million young people by the end of 2010, with at least one hour of participation in one of their self-esteem programs. To make change possible, the Dove Self-Esteem Fund focuses its efforts to foster positive image-related self-esteem in two areas of activity:
• The Fund develops and distributes resources that enable and empower women and girls to embrace a broad definition of beauty
• The Fund provides needed resources to organizations that foster a broader definition of beauty (http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com).
Campaign for Real Beauty
Dove made more things that could help them to reach their goal. They created a short film showing steps required to turn a woman into a billboard-ready model – from hair, makeup, photography and lighting and even to Photoshop. This film was created to encourage girls to participate in Dove-sponsored “real beauty” workshops in conjunction with the brand’s Self-Esteem Fund. The most interesting thing is that no Dove products were advertised in that short film, but the brand message was so powerful that it sounded through the world: 2 million YouTube hits in the first two weeks, over six million now. It was most viewed on YouTube for day, week and month in October 2006. Most viewed story on CNN.com on October 24 and ABC.com’s lead story. Its media value is estimated at 150 million. It’s been parodied repeatedly, has appeared on countless websites. Its aim was to promote the Dove Self-Esteem Workshops, which sold out in Canada almost in minutes. This film showed that interest in the already interesting “Campaign for Real Beauty” went way up. “Evolution” was not trying to sell anything other than a point of view. Its real purpose, and this is true of all Dove Self-Esteem Fund work, is to promote dialogue. It did that spectacularly and a whole lot more. Dove evolution film even won two Grand Prix at Cannes, both Cyber and Film (http://creativity-online.com).
Dove films (Evolution, Onslaught, etc) are also a good example how it can be used cheap online channels to spread the message rather than purchasing expensive TV network time.
Dove is a good example of a brand with huge “emotional capital” because this brand has developed such a strong emotional connection with consumers — globally. Dove created a forum for women to participate in a dialogue and debate about the definition and standards of beauty in society. Dove also released a global, academic research study that explores the relationship that women from around the world have with beauty and its links to their happiness and well-being. They established Self-esteem workshops with young girls in schools to help them foster a healthy relationship with and confidence in their bodies and their looks.
This campaign has radically and for all times changed the Dove brand image. Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was one of the most widely admired ad campaigns in the world. Dove succeeded to demonstrate that beauty was much more than stereotypes. Somehow Dove repositioned itself from being only the part of the beauty industry to being one of the beauty industry’s harshest critics — and in the process, they’ve sold millions of pounds of beauty products. This transformation dramatically increased sales across the Dove product portfolio and gave the brand huge cultural relevance.
Beside great success Dove also got a lot of critics about this campaign. All this Campaign for Real Beauty spoke for real, natural beauty and used real women in their ads but those real women were advertising cellulite firming cream. It’s supposed to “go to work on problem areas to help skin feel firmer and reduce the appearance of cellulite in two weeks.” Many critics asked a question: Is cellulite not a natural thing, is it not a real thing or real beauty (http://dir.salon.com)? Dove brand was famous for using real-life models with imperfect bodies in their ads and it was known for challenging today’s stereotypical view of beauty and inspiring women to take great care of themselves. But why did they advertised cream that had zero health value and was just an expensive and temporary Band-Aid for a “problem” that the media had told us we had with our bodies.

Dove Marketing Lessons
After all praises and critics Dove met, this campaign for real beauty is a great example of marketing. They had a lot of energy and were prepared to transform our culture’s most fundamental ideas of what beauty is.
People who are working with Dove campaign say that the most important thing in branding the product is to work together with consumers, to hear what they really want and to fell what they really need.
Dove even gives seven branding lessons that helped them to succeed and maybe will help for others:

• Survey the world. Get to know the culture.
• Discover the trend or the impulse that could serve the brand.
• Assess the downside risks to which the brand is exposed.
• Establish a time table that shows the growth of the trend.
• Establish the moment to get in.
• Partner with the enthusiasts of the trend.
• Make your move (http://www.cultureby.com)
It is difficult to go against the old stereotypes that and it is hard to teach people to think about everything in another, new way.
The public’s perception of beauty greatly differs from what it has been taught. Most people are taught to look at inner beauty, but we are constantly bombarded with images of things that are externally beautiful. So how can we be expected to look at the inner beauty of a person, when we see so much external beauty every day?
Dove not only asked these questions but tried to answer them and create another meaning of word “beautiful”


1. Dove (Soap). Read 2008 04 03. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dove_(soap)
2. A brand that keeps to its clinically proven promises . Read 2008 04 03 . Source: http://www.unilever.com/ourbrands/personalcare/dove.asp
3. Only Two Percent of Woman Describe Themselves as Beautiful: New Global Study Uncovers Desire for Broader Definition of Beauty. Read 2008 04 01. Source: http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com/press.asp?section=news&id=110
4. Dove “The Campaign for Real Beauty”, Business Situation and Campaign Objectives. Read 2008 04 05. Source: http://www.thearf.com/downloads/awards/studies/Dove_2007_Ogilvy_Case_Study.pdf
5. Natalia Williams, Dove: Brand Beautiful. Read 2008 04 05. Source: http://www.strategymag.com/articles/magazine/20051101/dove.html
6. About the Dove Self Esteem Fund. Read 2008 04 05. Source: http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com/dsef07/t5.aspx?id=7316
7. Creativity Awards 07 Grand Prize Winner: Dove “Evolution”. Read 2008 04 05. Source: http://creativity-online.com/?action=news:article&newsId=119085§ionId=the_creativity_awards
8. “Real beauty” — or really smart marketing? Read 2008 04 05. Source: http://www.cultureby.com/trilogy/2007/02/7_branding_less.html