Charles Spencer Chaplin was the comedian, the greatest film comic in the history of mankind. The actor was born in 1889 in the London East End. Sydney was his brother, fuor years older than Charles. Chaplin’s parents were actors. Two children adored their mother for her blue eyes and long light brown hair. Littlle Charlie cuoldn’t remember his father. Mother told him that he was a very good artist. But the trouble was he drank too much. Taht was the cause of their separation. During Charlie’s chidhood, the family travelled a lot in England.
At the age of 14, Charlie became a dancer in the music hall. After some time he joined the actors group where he played the main comedy parts. In 1913 Chaplin went to the United States. There he became the world famous star. Later the actor built his own film studios and in 1920 was the producer of his ows work. Charles Chaplin worked in Hollywood till 1952. The actor had several invitations from the Academy to receive a special Academy award for his films.
His most famous films are: “A dog’s life”, “The kid” (1917-1918), “The gold rush” (1925), “City light” (1931), “Modern times” (1936). His last American film, “Limelight”, was made in 1952. “A king in New York” which Chaplin made in England in 1957, reflected his bitterness towards America. Charles Chaplin made his film “A countess from Hong Kong” at the age of 77 in London in 1966. The film was not a critical or commercial success.
In 1952 the famous actor went to Switzerland. People loved him as a circus clown. During the intervals of film making Charles Chaplin wrope “My autobiography”. The world famous comedian died in 1977.
Galileo, an Italian, invented the telescope over three hundred and fifty years ago. As he could see so far with the instrument, he called it a “telescopio”, from the Greek word “teleskopos”, which means “seeing from a distance”. The “tele” part of the Greek word means “far off”. The English form of the Italian “telescopio” is “telescope”.
Many scientists had followed Galileo’s invention. They created words beginning with “tele”. A telephone brings voices from far off, the telegraph bringst writing from far off, and television brings pictures from a distance. The “vision” part of “television” comes from the Latin word “videre” that is “to see” and “video”, which is another word for “television”, is just the Latin word for “I see”.
When radio was invented, the word “broadcast” was used to describe what was transmitted by radio. The word “broadcast” means “to scatter abroad”. Now pictures are sent abroad as well as voices, and a new English word has been made up from “television” and “broadcast” – “telecast”.
The elderly in America
The United States has been criticized for its treatment of its elderly citizens. Although in many other countries the elderly usually live with children’s family, many older Americans live alone, without the close companionship of their children. This situation is sometimes blamed on the “selfishness” of the younger generation, but a closer look reveals that many of the elderly prefer to maintain their independent lives.
Research on the situation of the elderly in America has shown that while grandparents are delighted to be visited from time to time by their children and grandchildren, they prefer to continue living in the surrounding that they are familiar with. This suggests that children should permit their parents to live alone if they wish to, but should encourage them to maintain close ties to the rest of the family.
Another surprising result of research on the elderly in the United States has been the very positive influence which pets have been found to have on the older that they live with. It has been shown that elderly people who care for small pets, such as cats and dogs, live longer, are healthier, and have better attitudes towards their lives than similar older people without these companions.
A camping trip
One can have much fun in a camping trip. To enjoy such a trip, you should also enjoy primitive living, food cooked outdoor, and lots of exercise. A necessity for your trip is a good tent. It should be light enough to carry, but made of a strong cloth like canvas. At first, you will need time to adjust to the new environment: camping is very different from staying in a luxurious hotel. If you are fleible, you will adjust quickly, and you will find that camping is a good way to relax after a tense city life.
Tips for travellers
No matter what kind of holidays you prefer – sightseeing in a big city, relaxing on a sunny beach, or exploring a new country – following these tips will make your trip easy and joyful.
Make your plans early. If you wait too long, you might not get the reservations or the tickets you want. Also, by planning ahead, you might be able to save money by taking advantage of bargain rates.
Make sure your papers are in order. There are some papers you must take with you. If you are going to another country, you’ll need a passport and, perhaps, a visa. If several countries are in your plans, you might need a visa for each one of them. Arranging these paper can take weeks, so be sure to start in good time.
After you have your tickets, reservations, and official papers, you should collect the other papern you might need, such as an international driver’s licence, insurance information, and your medical records.
Investigate your destination, You’ll enjoy your trip more if you know something about the place you’re visiting. Maps, travel books guidebooks, geography books, and tourist brochures will help you decide the best things to do and see. As you learn about your destination, you’ll be able to decide what to take with you. It’s best to buy needed clothes or equipment a few weeks before you leave. If you get new shoes, wear them for a few days and find out if they’re really comfortable.
Make lists. This will help you remember things. Some useful lists will be:
1. things to do before leaving;
2. things to pack;
3. papers to take;
4. things to do and see.
Get a good night’s sleep. Always try to finish your preparations and packing a day or two before your departure. You don’t want to leave feeling worried and tired. You want to relax and enjoy yourself.